HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

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HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course 
Write a problem-solving, decision-making research paper that is no less than 18 pages…

Description

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

A+ 2 Course Projects Week 2, 7|Case Study Week 2, 5| Article Review Week 3, 6| Threaded Discussions Week 1-7|Final Exam

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course Course Project 1

Course Project Proposal and Week 7 

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Course Project Topic Week 2 

Preview:

For the course project, the writer will focus on the topic of “How Medical Malpractices Can be Alleviated.”  As reported by Rick Ungar of Forbes, the cost of malpractice in the U.S. runs at about $55.6 billion every year…

Course Project Week 7 

Introduction

This course contains a course project where you will identify and solve a healthcare problem. Assuming you have been listening to the news or following the talk shows the last 6 months (more like 2 decades), you know that healthcare is a key and contentious issue in America. There is no shortage of concerns, nor are there approaches on how to best solve them. (Some people call healthcare, from a problem standpoint, a target-rich environment.) The course projects requires you to identify a problem and, using the below model, to arrive at a recommended solution along with its implementation. The course project is a key academic activity. Because of its importance, you may need to commit time throughout the course, beginning with developing a problem statement in Week 2 to successfully complete the project. Below is a review of the project academic expectations, evaluation criteria, and examples of how to write an effective problem statement.

Academic Requirements:

Format: The two main content sections are (a) the introductory (noncontent) title page and table of contents (noncontent pages) and (b) the body (content sections 1-8 listed below).

Content: Write a problem-solving, decision-making research paper that is no less than 18 pages and no more than 22 pages of content (body of paper) and is double spaced. It should be based on your chosen subject, in which you convince your readers to support your recommendation. Details on format and content follows:

CategoryPointsDescription
Documentation15A quality paper will include proper citations and references.
Editing15A quality paper will be free of any spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors. Sentences and paragraphs will be clear, concise, and factually correct.
Content185A quality paper will have significant scope and depth of research to support thoughts, statements, concepts, and conclusions. Relevant illustration or examples are encouraged. Use of external source material is required. A quality paper will employ use of sound reasoning and logic to reinforce conclusions.
Organization & Formatting20A quality paper will include the above content sections, beginning with an executive summary through references. The content will be properly subdivided into the above required headings and subheadings (bold and in caps). In a quality paper, each step in the problem-solving model will be complete with relevant content that meets the content expectations for that section; a thoughtful problem statement, clearly researched and defined, with relevant and reasonable problem-solving recommendations, assessed in ways that produced a constructive solution and implementation plan is the expectation. Managing communication flow is key to effective writing.
Total235A quality paper will meet or exceed all of the above requirements.

Remember to submit your assignment for grading when finished.

Content Section 1, Executive Summary (15 points)

Once your paper is completed, you will need to summarize the paper’s main points for your reader. Explain succinctly the problem or issue you are writing about along with a summary of your paper’s main points. Include the solutions offered along with your identified best solution and plan and how it will solve the identified problem or issue. The purpose is to provide the reader (in this case me, your professor) an overview of the main points in the paper. The maximum length of an executive summary is one page, single spaced.

Content Section 2, Define the Problem or Issue in a Single Statement (25 points)

Identify and clearly state the problem that needs improvement or is not meeting expectations. Remember, that what appears to be the healthcare problem or issue may actually be just a symptom of a bigger problem: dig deep to be sure that you have identified the real problem or problems. If there appears to be more than one problem or issue, decide if they are separate or related issues. State the problem in the form of a single, clear problem statement (required). A problem statement contains identified the focus issue the rest of the model addresses. It presents an existing adverse outcome or concern. For the course project, the problem statement can be a statement or a question. The following is an example of a national-level focus (do not use it): The un- and under-insured receive 45% of their healthcare through expensive rates (two to three times higher than standard delivery systems) for Emergency Departments (ED), adversely impacting the ability of EDs to meet their quality service standards. The following is an example of a healthcare facility focus (do not use it): How can healthcare access be improved? Our lack of an automated information management system is adversely impacting our ability to compete; how can we achieve automated information management?

Please note, there should be no more than one paragraph in this section with a clear problem statement easily identified in that paragraph. The problem statement should be underlined and in bold letters. There will be a deduction if more than one paragraph is used.

Content Section 3, Literature Review (30 points)

Present what you discovered in your search of the literature. Review theories, concepts, and studies discussed in class and in our textbook, and review what other writers or researchers have to say about the subject of your analysis. In short, demonstrate an understanding of the literature and apply it sensibly to the problem. This is not a course in applied commonsense; however, such practical intelligence is important, especially in the application stage. A literature review is like playing a video game in which you are in a chamber with many doors. As you open each door, you uncover clues to help you progress to the next level. Similarly, in a literature review, your objective is to open the doors that can point the way to solving your business problem. Begin your literature review with a broad look at your field of interest, then narrow your focus until you zero in on the essential issue or issues of concern. Please note, a literature review is a required element of this assignment. At least 10 resources are required, beyond the textbook and course readings, to ensure the effectiveness of your research. Be sure to list them in the bibliography. Suggestion: Begin your literature survey by accessing Keller”s online library at…

Present what you discovered in your search of the literature. Review theories, concepts, and studies discussed in class and in our textbook, and review what other writers and researchers have to say about the subject of your analysis. In short, demonstrate an understanding of the literature, and apply it sensibly to the problem. This is not a course in applied commonsense; however, such practical intelligence is important, especially in the application stage. A literature review is like playing a video game in which you are in a chamber with many doors. As you open each door, you uncover clues to help you progress to the next level. Similarly, in a literature review, your objective is to open the “doors” that can point the way to solving your business problem. Begin your literature review with a broad look at your field of interest, then narrow your focus until you zero in on the essential issue or issues of concern. Please note, a literature review is a required element of this assignment. At least 10 resources are required, beyond the textbook and course readings, to ensure the effectiveness of your research. Be sure to list them in the bibliography.

Content Section 4, Problem Analysis (40 points)

This section should provide a detailed analysis of the causes of the problems or issues you identified in Section II. A major objective is to clearly illustrate how you are using course concepts (as well as what you learned from your literature review) to better understand the causes of the problem or issue. Show that you are applying course material! The purpose of this analysis is to make clear the focus issue (problem). It narrows the focus from the understanding created in the Literature Review into a clear problem definition, which is the detail that the problem-solving effort is to correct.

Content Section 5, Possible Solutions (30 points)

List, number, and describe at least three alternative solutions that could be appropriate methods to solve the identified problem or issue. Number each solution to make them clear to the reader (required). Be sure these solutions are logical, based on your analysis and that each would effectively treat the problem, not the symptoms. Also, discuss the anticipated outcomes (positive and negative) of implementing each of the possible solutions you identified. This is a probability assessment, meaning your assessment of the alternatives ability to solve the problem and at what cost. This assessment should transition to the solution section, meaning the solution should be the one you assessed as having the best chance to solve the problem within any cost constraints (key to the selection process).

Content Section 6, Solution and its Implementation (25 points)

Outline your recommended solution to the problem or issue. (It will be one of the alternatives explored in Section V or a combination of those alternatives.) State your solution clearly and specifically. Describe exactly what should be done; how it should be done, including by whom, with whom, and in what sequence; when actions should begin; and estimate cost and means of payment. List each bold and underlined word and then discuss (required).

Here are key points to keep in mind as you write this section:

  • Have I indicated an awareness of the problem and of implementation (i.e., the what and how aspect)?
  • Have I been specific enough ( i.e., when and cost)? (A specific solution will state what style is most appropriate for the situation and how you will attempt to the have the manager realize the appropriate style.)
  • What aspects of the problem remain unresolved by my solution?
  • Does my recommended solution and implementation plan address the problem or issues and causes identified in the previous sections?
  • Does my solution consider and resolve the identified pros and cons?
  • How will I evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented recommended solution?
  • What process checks or procedures will I put in place to institutionalize the improvement?
  • Could my solution cause other problems or issues?
  • What risks are inherent in the solution you recommend?
  • What contingency plans do you recommend?

Assess the realism of your proposed action plan. For example, is there adequate time, money, or other resources for your solution? In addition, does your solution place too much reliance on other people being reasonable (i.e., on what you think is reasonable)?

Content Section 7, Justification (20 points)

Justify why your recommended solution and its implementation will solve the identified problem or issue in the organization or unit you have selected. An important element of this section is to show very clearly how you applied course concepts to arrive at a workable solution and a successful implementation. Apply appropriate course material; support your conclusions with appropriately referenced facts, quotes, and readings, and be sure your justification addresses identified pros and cons.

Content Section 8, References (15 points)

All citations in the paper must appear in the reference list, and all references must be cited in the text. Choose references judiciously, and cite them accurately. A citation of an author’s work in the text documents your work, briefly identifies the source for readers, and enables readers to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper. To use the ideas or words of another without crediting the source is plagiarism.

Plagiarism in its purest form involves copying of entire passages either verbatim or nearly verbatim, with no direct acknowledgment of the source. The most common (and unconscious) form of plagiarism is when a direct quotation is simply paraphrased. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the obligation to provide proper identification of source data. The best way to avoid plagiarism is to make sure all quotes, ideas, or conclusions that are not your own are given proper acknowledgment in your text. Footnotes are required.

Grammar and Composition (15 points)

The paper uses acceptable terminology in standard English and reflects the use of word processing software and spell check. Acceptable sentence structure is reflected with appropriate use of grammar and style and is considerate of the audience for which the paper is written.

Formatting (20 points)

Failure to follow required format, content length, or other issues impacting effective communication (flow) will result in a reduction of up to 20 points.

Preview:

Over 250,000 people in the United States die due to medical malpractice every year, making it the third leading cause of death in the country.  It also contributes to the increase in healthcare spending.  These, however, are only symptoms…

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

Course Project 2

The Decrease of Medical Errors in the Healthcare System Course Project Week 2, 7

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This course contains a Course Project for which you will identify and solve a healthcare problem. Assuming you have been listening to the news or following talk shows for the last 6 months (more like 2 decades), you know that healthcare is a key and contentious issue in America. There is no shortage of concerns, nor are there approaches on how to best solve them. (Some people call healthcare, from a problem standpoint, a target-rich environment.) The Course Project requires you to identify a problem and, using the below model, arrive at a recommended solution along with its implementation. The Course Project is a key academic activity. Because of its importance, you may need to commit time throughout the course, beginning with developing a topic in Week 2, to successfully complete the project.

Topic Proposal: The Decrease of Medical Errors in the Healthcare System Week 2

Course Project Week 7

Week 2 Proposal: The Decrease of Medical Errors in the Healthcare System

Week 7 Preview:

This course project identified the role of medical errors in the health care system, as being one of the leading causes of deaths and preventable adverse outcomes among patients. Medical errors were related to the failure to achieve…

Solving the Medicare Crisis Case Study Week 2 

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You are chief of staff to your brother-in-law, Representative Howard Hughes, who was recently elected to fill out a term in Congress.

He has been asked to participate in a panel discussion on the Medicare funding crisis. You have been asked to prepare paper for him. The panel is asked to respond to a proposal for reducing Medicare expenditures by enrolling participants in HMOs. What does the Congressperson say?

The following key questions must be addressed in the paper:

  • Is Medicare in a state of crisis? Are radical measures necessary to preserve the program?
  • How is Medicare funded now? Why do elderly people feel that Medicare is an insurance program and not a welfare program? Is this perception accurate?
  • Should there be a Medicare program at all? Why should the government be involved in providing insurance to elderly preople? Does Medicare have detrimental effects on the market for healthcare or on the market for health insurance?
  • Are these economic effects, offset by the positive effects of the Medicare program for the elderly? What about the positive effects of caring for the elderly for society? Are there any externalities here?

Justify your position on either economic efficiency or equity grounds (or both).

Your Congressperson wants to appear intelligent. Do not be afraid to refer to economic theory or theories of distributive justice.

Prepare a written response to the questions and requests following the Case Study:

  • In general, the length of this case study should be no less than six pages, double spaced.
  • The written assignment should be produced using a word processing program, produced in memo format, and addressed to your congressperson from you.

Preview:

Medicare’s trustees indicated that the program’s Part A (hospital insurance) lost $128.7 billion from 2008 to 2014 (Jacobs, 2016).  The Congressional Budget Office also indicated…

Article Review Week 3 

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The Association Between Health Care Quality and Cost A Systematic Review

 

Preview:

In this article, the authors Peter S. Hussey, Samuel Wertheimer and Ateev Mehrota investigated the relationship between health care quality and cost.  They claimed that although…

Investment Potential in the Healthcare Case Study Week 5 

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Your brother-in-law, Representative Howard Hughes, lost his bid for reelection. However, thanks to your efforts, he established himself while in Congress as an astute analyst of the health field and as a consequence, has taken a position as partner at the prestigious Atlanta investment firm of Keller, Keller, Keller, Keller, and Disher. You have decided to take him up on his offer to join him as a manager in the healthcare division.

The other partners have little insight into healthcare other than receiving care. Your brother-in-law has been asked to give a presentation on the current status of the health sector and opportunities for investment.

Your job is to provide him with infomation on the healthcare industry. Key interest items are in the below questions. To be effective, detail needs to be spectific, complete with sufficient depth and detail.

The paper must answer the following questions:

  • How is the role of government likely to change?
  • Will government be more or less involved in the health sector?
  • What impact will increased government involvement have on healthcare as a business opportunity?
  • Where do you see a potential for growth in the health sector?
  • What opportunities would make for wise investments (e.g., hospitals, home health, mental health, rehabilitation services, managed care, physician group practice management, etc.)?
  • Is technology a good investment risk? If yes, what sort or types of technologies are likely to be in great demand, assuming a national shift to integrated delivery system model and a focus on prevention along with treatment?

Preview:

From a business or economic perspective, it would be wise to invest in managed care. Valued at $1.3 trillion, the managed care sector serves as a middleman for the entire healthcare sector. It helps lower, improve, and…

PowerPoint 14 Slides with Speaker Notes

Slide 3: The government will likely play bigger role in healthcare, based on survey results which showed that Americans thought the government has the obligation to ensure that all citizens have healthcare coverage. This statistic jumped from 42% of the survey respondents…

Article Review: Medicare Coverage Week 6 

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Preview:

The expansion of Medicaid coverage under the ACA: Implications for health care access,

use, and spending for vulnerable low-income adults. …

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

Set 1

Health Policy and Economics Discussions Week 1-7

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Three Major Tasks of Economics and Factors Influencing Healthcare Demand Discussions Week 1

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Three Major Tasks of Economics Week 1 Discussions 1

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Identify the three major tasks of economics and discuss why they are important. What are their roles in organization management?  Are there any additional or different questions that need to be asked when it comes to healthcare?  Can you think of other tasks or roles economics plays in our healthcare system?

Healthcare economics can defy traditional predictive models.  Consumer behavior and reimbursement schemes and amounts are quite volatile in the healthcare context.  How healthcare is delivered can vary depend on who is control of state and federal government.  For the class, does this undermine the effectiveness of healthcare economics?

Unlike a lot of consumers, healthcare consumers often hold the key themselves as to how much demand for care they are going to need, based on their ability to comply with a health regimen.  For the class, how does this affect the validity of economic predictors?…

Factors Influencing Healthcare Demand Week 1 Discussions 2

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Identify and discuss the factors that influence the demand for healthcare and, in turn, healthcare economics. What factor do you believe has the greatest impact on healthcare economics and why?

Healthcare economics differs from other types of economics, mainly due to the presence of third party payers, such as the government or insurance companies.

For the class, how do such third party players influence supply and demand?  Are there any obvious ways that healthcare costs can be reduced?  How do providers profit from such arrangements, where their actual collection may barely cover their costs?  Do people demand health coverage merely because they have the ability to pay for it?

Many diseases are preventable and to some extent, healthcare consumers can control their own demand for healthcare services.

For the class, do you think there are sufficient incentives in our healthcare system for healthcare consumers to control their own need for healthcare services?…

Financing Healthcare and Production Function Analysis Discussions Week 2

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Financing Healthcare Week 2 Discussions 1

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Discuss the role of all parties (patient, providers, and payers) to contain costs. What is the impact of cost-containment efforts on the rising cost of healthcare?

Coding is an important and complex process. Government audits (RAC) can reveal a certain upcoding (overcharging) that might take place, which would unnecessarily increase the cost of healthcare.

For the class, what can cause this to occur? How can it prevented?  There are some approaches and models that have proven to be successful in containing costs.

For the class, what are examples of such models and what has made them successful?

There is concern that despite the high percentage of healthcare costs in the US, there is not enough of a national will to control these costs.

For the class, do you think this is the case? Are healthcare costs a high enough priority in this country?  How has managed care changed the dynamic? How has it shifted risks of losses among the major players in healthcare?…

Production Function Analysis Week 2 Discussions 2

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What are the primary steps in a production function analysis? How would you apply these steps in a healthcare organization?  What areas of healthcare economics do you think the production function has the production function been most applicable to and most successful in improving?

Marginal costs do look at costs on an additional unit basis.  For the class, how do marginal costs apply to healthcare?  There are also categories of costs which are indirect and direct costs.  Is there any connection between indirect and direct costs and variable or fixed costs?

There are many variables that go into these calculations.  Is there always a direct connection between inputs and outcomes, i.e., can managers always control outcomes?  There are relationships between inputs and outputs, but they are not always linear.  Why won’t there always be a clear line between healthcare inputs-physician time/technology and good healthcare outcomes?

Managed Care Concept and Redistribution and Social Insurance Discussions Week 3

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Managed Care Concept Week 3 Discussions 1

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Discuss the concept of managed care. Why was it created? What were its goals? Have these goals changed? Has it worked? How it can be improved?

Managed care, in theory, should address quality, cost and access concerns.  In practice, what are the limitations of managed care in achieving these goals?  What are the major obstacles to an MCO’s ability to control costs and provide access?

Managed care, in theory, should help control costs, but not all of healthcare has adopted this model.  Why is this the case?  Which managed care programs have been the most successful and why?

Managed care was created for a few reasons. First, the obvious it was a response to rising costs. This was partially due to the payment structure they had at the time (fee-for-service), in which providers were the major benefactors as they had every incentive to provide more care than what was needed increasing their profits. The second was to…

Redistribution and Social Insurance Week 3 Discussions 2

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Discuss the connection between redistribution and social insurance. How was the Affordable Care Act designed to save money and curb rising healthcare costs, and why was it successful (or not)?  What steps are taken to ensure that social insurance is available to those who actually need it?

There are members of both political parties who see the ACA as a starting point, i.e., that its problems should be changed and its strengths be maintained.  What are the primary criticisms of this program?  Redistribution of wealth does have a negative connection to it; however, there can be distinct benefits from redistribution.  How can society best balance the costs and benefits from this process?  Does the healthcare system overall benefit from this process?…

The Role of Nonprofits in Healthcare and Public Health Insurance Discussions Week 4

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The Role of Nonprofits in Healthcare Week 4 Discussions 1

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How does the role of nonprofit healthcare organizations differ from that of for-profit healthcare organizations? Which entity is better suited to meet the growing demand for health services by the aging population, and why?

Do you think one type of entity is more effective in delivering healthcare than the other? Why do you think this might be the case?  What might the differences between a county entity and a non-profit one? Neither will pay taxes, but what might be the operational differences?

If there are for-profit organizations, with potential for greater resources and profits in healthcare, why would any healthcare organization be non-profit?

There are healthcare organizations in many areas of healthcare that are organized as for-profits or non-profits.

The type of service provided does not dictate which status an entity will choose.

For the class, what do you think is the most important factor in this decision?

Public Health Insurance Week 4 Discussions 2

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Health policy is moving closer (in distinct increments) to a broader role in healthcare, and public health insurance can take many forms. What do you envision the government’s role to be (e.g., a continued regulation on specific aspects or a more sweeping policy that leads to public health insurance)?  In your comments distinguish between state and federal policy.

Healthcare is such a large public good with substantial governmental and societal investment.

There is disagreement about what direction healthcare policy should go but the basic objectives have been consistent-contain costs, improve quality and access.

For the class, why do you think there is such a lack of consensus in how to achieve those objectives?  Is there any way that healthcare and healthcare policy can be stabilized, notwithstanding the political climate?

Human Capital and Policy and Impact of Health Policy Week 5 Discussions

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Human Capital and Policy Week 5 Discussions 1

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What steps can Congress and state legislatures take to alleviate a serious national shortage of skilled providers? Research suggests medical errors have been linked to inadequate staffing (i.e., quantity and quality of skilled personnel). What steps would you take to mitigate shortages?

What factors have contributed to this change in supply and demand?  What are the disadvantages of using “agency” nurses?  Why might more healthcare organizations more likely to hire mid-levels in the future?  What incentives can be offered to med students/residents to undertake this burden?  What do you think has contributed to reducing the incentive to becoming an incentive?

Impact of Health Policy Week 5 Discussions 2

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What is the impact of health policy on resourcing (i.e., funding, technology, capital assets, and other key, nonhuman means of healthcare delivery)?

The EHR has been cited as a means of promoting the accuracy and timeliness of medical information, which has the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare.

For the class, is there evidence that this, in fact, has been the case?  What is the rationale for the growth of this industry? Is profitable? Is it competitive?  What are the risks associated with telemedicine that are not associated with in-person medical care?

Healthcare policy is really something of a misnomer in a society where policy goals are ever-changing. There are many policy objectives and policies.

For the class, how does society select its healthcare policy and goals? Clearly quality, access and cost are factors in developing policy but policy tries to help us reach these goals.

Healthcare Coverage Overview and Health Coverage Discussions Week 6

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Healthcare Coverage Overview Discussions 1 Week 6

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Respond to a proposal of how to optimize healthcare coverage for as many U.S. citizens as possible. Post a 1- to 2-minute VoiceThread recapping a news article or proposal and provide your opinion of how this proposal would impact the ability to balance costs, quality, and access to healthcare for all stakeholders involved (e.g., patients, providers, third-party payers, legislators, etc.). Identify whether this coverage should be voluntary or mandatory, with rationale.

Making healthcare more affordable does make healthcare more accessible.  Are there any negative consequences associated with reducing insurance premiums on the access or quality of healthcare?  Is universal healthcare that much different an idea, just with tax dollars rather than insurance premiums?

There has also been a departure.by physicians from the healthcare system because of the emphasis on capitation and risk bearing by providers there.  Do you think a similar trend could occur in the US?  Do you think socialist governments tend to have socialist health plans. Is there any element of socialism in the US healthcare system that might be at odds with a normally capitalistic/democratic system like the US?…

Health Coverage Discussions 2 Week 6

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Respond to a proposal of how to optimize healthcare coverage for as many U.S. citizens as possible. Post a 1- to 2-minute VoiceThread recapping a news article or proposal and provide your opinion of how this proposal would impact the ability to balance costs, quality, and access to healthcare for all stakeholders involved (e.g., patients, providers, third-party payers, legislators, etc.). Identify whether this coverage should be voluntary or mandatory, with rationale.

Most insurance plans are based on the idea that there is pooled risk. We may never or rarely use as much healthcare as the others in the pool.  Is universal healthcare that much different an idea, just with tax dollars rather than insurance premiums?  Large pieces of legislation that impact something as important as people’s health tend to be difficult to dismantle completely.  What do you think the future of this legislation is?

National Systems of Healthcare and Notional Healthcare in the United States Discussions Week 7

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National Systems of Healthcare Discussions 1 Week 7

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How do you describe a developed nation’s system of healthcare?  Your description should provide (only) one positive and one negative quality about that system.  Connect both of these qualities to either cost, quality, or access.

What are the risks associated with repealing the ACA? What are the risks to patients who have enrolled in this program, if any?  What is a fundamental difference between the Japanese system and the US and European systems?  Why isn’t the US considered one of the higher quality healthcare countries? Don’t we have the most advanced healthcare technology?

Notional Healthcare in the United States Discussions 2 Week 7

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Provide an example of at least one obstacle to implementing national healthcare in the United States and how you would overcome it. In your response, explain if your suggestion is part of the “repeal and replace” promise by President Trump in reference to the Affordable Care Act.

Do you think the ACA is in the tradition of such healthcare programs and how is it a departure from them?  Do you think this is inherently fair, or inherently unfair? Is there any other way that the poor can obtain healthcare?  Is there a Constitutional provision which allows the national government to pass legislation on healthcare?  What is the primary objection to such a system?

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

Discussions Set 2

Health Policy and Economics Discussions Week 1-7 All Posts 393 Pages 

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Three Major Tasks of Economics and Factors Influencing Healthcare Demand Discussions Week 1 All Posts 49 Pages 

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Three Major Tasks of Economics Discussions 1 Week 1 All Posts 24 Pages 

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Identify the three major tasks of economics and discuss why they are important. What are their roles in organization management?

With each year that passes there are new issues within the health industry, as one is solved another one surfaces, we are always going to have issues with the health care industry. One of the issues we’ve been facing recently is the quality of healthcare as it appears that the focus has shifted to making money rather than providing quality care. Because of the focused placed on fee-for service, where providers are paid for their services provided, providers focus on providing quantity of care with the interest in generating profits and neglecting the quality of care provided. This resulted in the over use of resources and providers billing for unnecessary procedures and services. Programs such as the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services have since created value-based programs that are directed at changing this concepts by connecting the providers payments to the quality of service they provide, thus reducing unnecessary charges and cost…

Factors Influencing Healthcare Demand Discussions 2 Week 1 All Posts 25 Pages 

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Identify and discuss the factors that influence the demand, in turn healthcare economics. What factor do you believe has the greatest impact on healthcare economics and why?

Availability is a factor that influences health care services. Your access to transportation may limit the availability you have to some better health care services or treatments at locations not close to your home. Availability of more skilled nurses or doctors may be limited if you live in a rural geographical location or one with challenging economic conditions. Likewise, specialized equipment may be in short supply, too, reducing immediate availability. If you have a unique health condition, the availability of a professional who can meet your health care need may not even reside in the same country, further influencing whether you can meet a health care need.

Cost – Personal financial situations are a factor that influences health care services, even if you have some form of insurance. Some medical doctor’s offices and hospitals may refuse to treat you for certain conditions without adequate…

Financing Healthcare and Production Function Analysis Discussions Week 2 All Posts 57 Pages 

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Financing Healthcare Discussions 1 Week 2 All Posts 31 Pages 

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Discuss the role of all parties (patient, providers, and payers) to contain costs. Analyze the impact of cost-containment efforts on the rising cost of healthcare.

In 2000, health care spending rose to $1.3 trillion dollars, or an average of $4,637 per person. As a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), it grew from 13.1 percent in 1999 to 13.2 percent in 2000. National health expenditures are expected to reach $2.8 trillion in 2011, with an average annual growth rate of 7.3 percent from 2001 to 2011. By growing 2.5 percent faster than the GDP, expenditures will consume approximately 17 percent of the GDP in 2011.

In 2000, spending for health services increased at virtually identical rates in the public (6.9 percent) and private (7.0 percent) sectors. Spending on Medicare, the largest single public health care program rose 5.6 percent in 2000, following much lower growth rates of 0.6 percent in 1998 and 1.5 percent in 1999. For the private sector, the year 2000 marked the third straight year of significantly high growth. During 2000, hospital spending growth was 5.1 percent, the first time since 1993 that hospital spending increased more than 4.0 percent…

Production Function Analysis Discussions 2 Week 2 All Posts 26 Pages 

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What are the primary steps in a production function analysis? How would you apply these steps in a healthcare organization?

Medicare is in over its head and if it remains along that path it will go under. The federal government needs to figure out what to do contain cost and keep the program afloat, if not it could be detrimental. Private facilities may not want to provide services for Medicare members for fear of not getting paid. As the population ages the number of Medicare members increases as well as the cost, this is why it is important to promote preventative care so that the population would be healthier and would not be reliant on medical care. Though Medicare have good intention, it is quickly becoming problematic and  in jeopardy of increased debt if there isn’t a reform soon.

Managed Care Concept and Redistribution and Social Insurance Discussions Week 3 All Posts 61 Pages 

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Managed Care Concept Discussions 1 Week 3 All Posts 31 Pages 

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Discuss the concept of managed care. Why was it created? What were its goals? Have these goals changed? Has it worked? How it can be improved?

Managed Care is a health care delivery system organized to manage cost, utilization, and quality. Medicaid managed care provides for the delivery of Medicaid health benefits and additional services through contracted arrangements between state Medicaid agencies and managed care organizations (MCOs) that accept a set per member per month (capitation) payment for these services….

Redistribution and Social Insurance Discussions 2 Week 3 All Posts 30 Pages 

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Discuss the connection between redistribution and social insurance.  Pros and cons of key financing mechanisms for social health protection.

Redistribution from an economic stand point means the theory, policy, or practice of lessening or reducing inequalities in income through such measures as progressive income taxation and antipoverty programs.  Whereas Social Insurance is protection of the individual against economic hazards (such as unemployment, old age, or disability) in which the government participates or enforces the participation of employers and affected individuals.

or reducing inequalities in income through such measures as progressive income taxation and antipoverty programs. Whereas Social Insurance is protection of the individual against economic hazards (such as unemployment, old age, or disability) in which the government participates or enforces the participation of employers and affected individuals…

The Role of Nonprofits in Healthcare and Public Health Insurance Discussions Week 4 All Posts 55 Pages 

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The Role of Nonprofits in Healthcare Discussions 1 Week 4 All Posts 28 Pages 

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How does the role of nonprofit healthcare organizations differ from profit healthcare organizations?

At the most basic level, healthcare organizations of all sizes and types are either nonprofit (NP) or for profit (FP). Similarities between both types of organizations include but are not limited to:

  1. Both have universal goals to provide the highest quality healthcare services needed by patients served.
  2. Both have universal goals to balance costs, quality, and access among all stakeholder groups (e.g., patients, providers, administrators, third-party payers, etc.).
  3. Both MUST make a profit to stay in business and continue providing healthcare services to patients who need them.
  4. Both have to comply with legal policies and regulations at local, county, state, and federal levels.
  5. Both experience similar challenges such as healthcare professional shortages/turnover/burnout, high rates of malpractice lawsuits/litigation, highly complex reimbursement for services and products provided.

Differences between NPs and FPs included but are not limited to:

  1. NPs do not pay income taxes, whereas FPs do pay income taxes (mostly at corporate rates). In return for the benefit of NPs not paying income taxes, legally these organizations are required to treat a reasonable volume of patients for free (i.e., without the ability to pay for services through insurance or personal funds). Conversely, FPs are not legally required to treat patients without an ability to pay for services received.
  2. NPs must put profits into an “excess account” earmarked for a capital improvement projects such as a new piece of technology or structure remodel/addition, etc. FPs pay taxes on profits and distribute the remaining amount to owners/shareholders.
  3. NPs are eligible to apply for and receive numerous federal grants to supplement income and pay for services that may lose money (aka lost leader programs) whereas FPs are typically not eligible to receive grant monies.
  4. NPs typically have a much larger source of gifts and donations by patrons through foundations than FPs.
  5. NPs typically have a much larger volunteer staff than FPs.

Public Health Insurance Discussions 2 Week 4 All Posts 27 Pages 

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Health policy is moving closer (in distinct increments) to a broader role in healthcare. Public health insurance can take many forms. Discuss what you envision the government’s role to be (e.g., a continued regulation on specific aspects or a more sweeping policy that leads to public health insurance). In your comments distinguish between state- and federal-government policy.  Also, we need health policies and initiatives that are affordable and sustainable. Thoughts?

Based on the article titled Why Public Health Insurance Could Help, Even if You Don’t Want It, Jayachandran illustrates how the federal government of Mexico provided essential foods such as beans and rice to the poor.  India provided its poorer citizens with welfare for work.  In both instances, these governments took responsibility because they were able.  I believe the same is true for health insurance, specifically public health insurance in the United States…

Human Capital and Policy and Impact of Health Policy Discussions Week 5 All Posts 57 Pages 

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Human Capital and Policy Discussions 1 Week 5 All Posts 29 Pages 

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What steps can Congress and state legislatures take to alleviate a serious national shortage of skilled providers. Research suggests medical errors have been linked to inadequate staffing (i.e., quantity and quality of skilled personnel). What steps would you take to mitigate shortages?

Access to primary health care services in a timely manner is a significant factor for optimal public health outcomes. However, there is currently a notable shortage of primary health care workers, which may compromise the quality of patient care. It has been established that practices with more than 2,000 patients per practitioner working full-time are not able to provide the level of care and access to their patients as required. At this ratio, each primary care physician is estimated to spend more than 17 hours each day in the provision of acute, chronic, and preventative health care. This is clearly not feasible and does not include other responsibilities and paperwork associated with the position.

Attracting a greater number of medical students into the provision of primary health care, rather than specialization, would help increase the number of primary care practitioners. There are several ways of doing this, including:…

Impact of Health Policy Discussions 2 Week 5 All Posts 28 Pages

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What is the impact of health policy on resourcing (i.e., funding, technology, capital assets, and other key, nonhuman means of healthcare delivery)?  How do we increase awareness about health policies among the targeted population?

Healthcare Reform Act—officially called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)—institutes sweeping changes across all healthcare stakeholders, including payers, providers, and plan members. In fact, the amount of change required by the PPACA is so extensive, distilling all the changes down and accounting for their impact is a serious challenge for the industry as a whole. However, if we focus on the apparent macro changes that affect payers—an increase in competition for the group market, an increase in overall access, and new regulations on expense caps for medical costs—a rational set of assumptions becomes apparent for predicting the direct impact on stakeholders. The implementation of these changes will cause payers to:…

Healthcare Coverage and Political Issues to National Health Discussions Week 6 All Posts 60 Pages 

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Healthcare Coverage Discussions 1 Week 6 All 32 Posts Pages 

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What means exist for U.S citizens to obtain healthcare coverage? Should coverage be voluntary or mandatory?

The Affordable Care Act provided Americans with better health security by putting in place comprehensive health insurance reforms that: expanded coverage, holds insurance companies accountable, lower health care costs, guarantee more choice, and enhance the quality of care for all Americans (Medicaid).

Prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the individual insurance market was a notoriously difficult place for consumers without employer-based health benefits to purchase insurance. It also was challenging for insurers to sell insurance without incurring large losses. As a result, insurers went to great lengths to exclude people with even mild health problems. In 2010, the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey found that more than one-third of people who tried to purchase health insurance in the individual market in the previous three years—an estimated 9 million people—had been turned down, charged a higher price, or had a condition excluded from their health plan….

Political Issues to National Health Discussions 2 Week 6 All Posts 28 Pages 

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What are the most important political issues that challenge the creation of a national system of healthcare? What should we do differently to control healthcare costs? Are we doing enough or should we look at other countries that have been able to control and manage their healthcare expenditures?

Worldwide there is a growing awareness of the need to adapt health care systems to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.  The reasons for this need are many but include shifting trends in demographics and illness, epidemiological knowledge of the social determinants of health, the radical possibilities of new technologies, and rapidly increasing health care costs as well as relatively long-standing concerns about the need to respect and support the autonomy of patients…

National Systems of Healthcare and National Healthcare in the United States Discussions Week 7 All Posts 54 Pages 

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National Systems of Healthcare Discussions 1 Week 7 All Posts 28 Pages 

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Describe a developed nations system of healthcare. Your description should provide (only) one positive and one negative quality about that system. Connect both of these qualities to either cost, quality, or access.

The United States has a mix of clashing ideas  private insurance through employment; single-payer Medicare mainly for those 65 and older; state-managed Medicaid for many low-income people; private insurance through exchanges set up by the Affordable Care Act; as well as about 28 million people without any insurance at all. Hospitals are private, except for those run by the Veterans Health Administration…

National Healthcare in the United States Discussions 2 Week 7 All Posts 26 Pages 

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Provide an example of a national-level policy directed at health. Explain the policy.

Health care spending in the U.S. far exceeds that of other high-income countries; though spending growth has slowed in the U.S. and in most other countries in recent years. Even though the U.S. is the only country without a publicly financed universal health system, it still spends more public dollars on health care than all but two of the other countries. Americans have relatively few hospital admissions and physician visits, but are greater users of expensive technologies like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. Available cross-national pricing data suggest that prices for health care are notably higher in the U.S., potentially explaining a large part of the higher health spending. In contrast, the U.S. devotes a…

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course

Final Exam Health Policy and Economics 

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(TCO E) Briefly describe cost-benefit analysis. Demonstrate understanding by applying the concept to an assessment of an immunization program.

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Cost-benefit analysis refers to the process used for analyzing business decisions. To use it, the benefits of a business-related action or…

(TCO G) Compare another developed nation’s model of healthcare to the model used in the United States.  Identify and compare the three key service indicators (forms of healthcare measurement), cost, quality, and access, in your comparison.

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Although the US spends more on healthcare (15% of the GDP) in comparison to Canada that spends only 10% of its GDP on…

(TCO A) All of the following are healthcare priorities or goals that healthcare leaders encouraged in testimony to Congress except ___________________.

Improving the quality and safety of medical care.

Increased use of information technology.

Reward more efficient providers.

Achieve universal coverage.

Enhance utilization management.

(TCO D) As a self-employed healthcare consultant, your company, Professional Dynamics, Inc., has been asked to discuss and analyze the concept of production for the board of directors at a newly formed wellness center (all of the members were on the board at a local hospital). Describe in your answer what you will say to the board to get them to appreciate how health as a goal will have a different production model.

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  • Production function using healthcare as the model and health as the end state.

In the production of healthcare where health is the end state, the government plays a key role, particularly when it…

  • In what ways does the health market differ from a perfectly competitive market?

One of the differences is that the health market’s target “customers” has different…

3) If the healthcare market is not perfectly competitive, why should policy makers pay attention to market forces?

Because of the differentiated goods in healthcare, people or the…

(TCO D) At the Board of Directors Meeting of the MCO, the CEO, Bill Bennett, mentions the phrases production function and “push to the flat of the curve.” He asks you to analyze them, their application, and their usefulness as tools and techniques for management staff. How will understanding these terms enhance management performance?  Be specific in view of impact. 

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The production function refers to the maximum output that can be produced out of a given…

(TCO C) You are an expert in government programs. You have been asked to speak to the local Kawanis club on a topic titled, “Social Insurance in America.” You want the members to leave with an understanding that American healthcare is more than just a free-market industry.   Identify what you will say on each of the following points:

The role of state governments in public health, federal and state governments’ involvement in social health insurance and governments’ role in environmental safety.

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State governments are responsible for creating opportunities that promote performance. They…

(TCO B) Explain why the three task of economics are connected to the concept of production.  Next, describe how this understanding applies to healthcare; provide one example to demonstrate your point. 

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Production refers to the process of combining different inputs to create something for consumption…

(TCO F) You work for a freshman congressman who is interested in healthcare. He wants a briefing paper on the role of nonprofit healthcare delivery organizations; specifically, how to make them more proficient and efficient. Your briefing should begin with discussion of the role of nonprofit organizations, their costs to operate, how to improve their efficiency, and how to integrate them with profit healthcare organizations that will enhance efficiency and effectiveness of both. 40 pts

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Non-government organizations are actively involved in the promotion of well-being. They serve as a link between…

HSM 544 Health Policy Economics Entire Course