PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course


PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course
the topic selected should be related to a specific intergovernmental management…



PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

A+ Course Project Week 2, 5, 7|You Decide Week 3, 6|Midterm Exam| Discussions Week 1-7|Final Exam

Course Project – Gun Control


The Course Project is an opportunity for you to explore, in-depth, a topic of your choosing related to intergovernmental management. Accordingly, a first step in that direction is for you to choose an appropriate topic and submit a proposal in Week 2. The proposal can be as brief as two or three paragraphs but should be detailed enough to reflect a strong start to the project by you. In that regard, please be sure to explain how you expect that your research and analysis will relate to one or more specific TCOs for this course. A list of potential topics is presented below. These are intended as very broad areas; you will need to narrow the topic and refine the analysis so that the intergovernmental aspects are appropriately considered.


The following guidelines are pertinent to the paper for the project.

  • Papers must be 8-12 pages in length with 10-point font and double-spaced. Include a cover page, table of contents, introduction, body of the report, summary or conclusion, and a reference page for the works cited. Note that the length is for the content only; the cover page, table of contents, and reference page are in addition to those pages.
  • Even though this is not a scientific-type writing assignment, and is mostly creative in nature, references are still very important. At least six authoritative, outside references are required. Anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable as references. These should be listed on the last page titled References.
  • Appropriate citations are required.
  • The paper should be in the American Psychological Association (APA) format.
  • All DeVry University policies are in effect, including the plagiarism policy.
  • Papers are due during Week 7 of this course.
  • Any questions about this paper may be discussed in the weekly Q & A discussion topic.
  • This paper is worth 200 total points and will be graded on quality of research topic; quality of paper information; and the use of citations, grammar, and sentence structure.


You will need to meet the following milestones for deliverables during the next few weeks:

  • Week 2 – Topic Selection (This includes a 2-3 paragraph proposal in a Word document to be placed in the Dropbox.)
  • Week 5 – Status Report (A 2-3 paragraph summary of your work to date in a Word document is to be placed in the Dropbox. The main emphasis is to provide you with a chance to explain if you are having questions or problems.)
  • Week 7 – Final Submission (See the Guidelines above regarding this deliverable.)

Gun Control Week 2 

Each time a tragedy happens brought by gun violence, the controversial debate on gun control vs. gun rights surfaces.  Just two months after the heart-breaking Sandy Hook elementary shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, President Obama in his 2013 State of the Union addressed appealed to lawmakers to vote on anti-gun violence legislation.  A year later, with no action from…

Project Summary Week 5 

Online research about domestic gun control policy is on the final stage. The reading materials being explored include existing university policy papers on the topic, news and lobbyist’s websites and blogs, official government websites…

Course Project Gun Control Week 7 

While there are several valid opinions from politicians, organizations and legal experts floating out there, the one that really mattered is that of the Supreme Court.  The first ruling happened in 1876 in U.S. v. Cruikshank, when members of Ku Klux Klan filed a case to prohibit black citizens the right to assembly and the right to bear arms.  The court ruled that the right of each individual to bear arms was not granted under the Constitution.  This was affirmed…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

You Decide-Analysis and Recommendation to the Governor


Due to budget problems, a number of programs have had to be eliminated at the publicly supported universities in your state. One result is that certain specific majors are no longer available at any of those universities. Each of those majors is offered, though, at a state university in a neighboring state. Conversely, your state’s institutions offer certain majors not available in that other state. An analyst in the state’s higher education department has advocated that an agreement be entered with the neighboring state to allow reciprocity on in-state tuition for those programs. The executive director of the department is enthusiastic and wants to expand the concept to an interstate compact covering other areas of mutual interest. The speaker of the state house of representatives, however, has already stated her opposition to any such arrangements.



You need to draft an analysis and recommendation to the governor. At this point, the governor is looking mainly for your opinion. Legal counsel will be consulted if needed on the finer points that you may raise. Specific questions that should be addressed include the following:

  • What is the provision of the United States Constitution that may apply in the case of an agreement or compact between two or more states?
  • Do you think that the proposal of James Raika to just enter into an agreement between the departments falls under that provision? Do you think that his proposal is reasonable? What do you see as the major advantage of that proposal? In your view, what is a major problem with this limited approach?
  • Why do you suppose that Morgan James wants to take a more expanded approach? What do you think are some of the benefits of that approach? What do you feel are the potential problems? What would be the sequence of events for proceeding to try to gain approval?
  • If Margaret Smith is opposed to the idea, in either form, what are the implications? Why do you think she is against the idea? What might you be able to do to help coordinate a discussion between the parties?

After reading through the You Decide activity and considering the questions listed here, please prepare a paper in APA format. The paper should be written to the governor with a brief summary of the overall issue and responses to the specific questions posed above. The paper should be double spaced, 11-point or 12-point type, and between 750 and 1,500 words.


With a mutual aid agreement, the two states will be able to share information, personnel, equipment, and supplies.  As such, this will enable the students from both states to easily avail of the higher education courses that they need without causing too much disruption in the operations of the state universities…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Midterm Exam

(TCO B) The bicameral legislature that exists in the United States today was formulated during the Constitutional Convention (Points : 5)

Exactly per the Virginia Plan

Exactly per the New Jersey Plan

As a compromise on the issue of proportional representation

None of the above

(TCO B) New Federalism is a term that was used by (Points : 5)

Richard Nixon

Ronald Reagan

George H.W. Bush

All of the above

(TCO C) When a conflict between two or more states arises, the ultimate resolution of the matter (Points : 5)

Could reach the Supreme Court of the United States

Would need to be decided by the Congress of the United States

Should be decided by the President of the United States

Must result in an interstate compact

(TCO C) The genesis of the idea for an interstate compact through the passage of the legislation in two or more states and the implementation is a multiple-step process. One such step or series of steps is (Points : 5)

To reconcile the differences in the enabling statutes passed in the various states

To always seek Congressional approval for the compact

To have the administrative structure setup pending the passage of legislation

To identify stakeholders of the issue, determine the needs of the particular states, and draft the documents to create the compact if enacted by the applicable legislatures

(TCO D) When the federal government is attempting to implement a policy nationally, and that policy is within the permitted powers, it can influence the states to comply by (Points : 5)

mandating that each and every state follow the federal rule

Providing funding to cover part or all of the cost of a state in meeting the requirements

Using persuasion rather than mandates

All of the above

(TCO D) Which model of the relationships between the national, state, and local governments views the relationship of the national government and state governments as independent and autonomous? (Points : 5)




None of the above

(TCO D) Under which model of the relationships between the national, state, and local governments is there deemed to be a hierarchy of power with a lower level dependent on the higher level(s)?




None of the above

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

(TCO B) Explain the basics of a unitary form of government including a brief mention of one of its strengths as compared to a federal government. (Points : 10)

The unitary model is a structure that in which all decision making is made or rests in the hands of the…

(TCO C) Discuss key characteristics of the United States of America immediately after ratification of the Constitution as compared to under the Articles of Confederation. (Points : 20)

The Articles of Confederation was the first constitution of the United States of America. It was drafted around 1776 to late 1777.  It became a formal rectification by all…

PA 584 Intergovernmental Management

(TCO C) What is meant by the term “home rule?” Briefly, how does it compare to Dillon’s Rule? (Points : 20)

One advantage of the home rule is that it enables the citizens to choose the type of government they prefer.  Also, with the diversity of local communities, the home rule allows the…

(TCO D) What were the first three executive level departments created in federal government of the United States of America? In what way was that indicative of the role of the federal government at that time? (Points : 15)

The first three executive branch departments that were created by federal government where the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Department of…

(TCO B) Discuss the basic viewpoints of dual federalism and cooperative federalism. Focus please on the role of the federal government and the respective state governments. Feel free to include a brief discussion of historical events that have led into these viewpoints of federalism. (Points : 30)

The first type of federalism that was implemented in the United Sates was dual federalism, which started at around 1789 and lasted until World War II. This type of federalism refers to a political theory…

(TCO D) An interstate compact is an important tool for management of policy issues that cross jurisdictional lines. Please define the term interstate compact. Explain the steps that are needed from the time that an interstate related problem is recognized to the time that an appropriate agreement is implemented. (Points : 25)

Interstate compacts in the United States were first used by the American colonies to settle boundary disputes. According to the websites listed below, after the American Revolution, states continued to…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

You Decide-A State Emergency Management Agency

A state emergency management agency will be conducting a training exercise with a federal agency. Specifically, a disaster simulation will occur with hundreds of volunteers as well as first responders using actual supplies and equipment. The exercise will be paid for by the state agency but with money obtained via a grant from the federal government.

You need to draft a summary of how you will handle the situation. Specific questions that should be addressed include the following:

  • Do you feel that there might be an ethical issue present? For the moment, assume that no laws have been broken and just focus on any possible ethical issues.
  • Explain how a competitive bidding arrangement might be useful. Do you see any impediments to using such a bidding process in this instance?
  • If you were going to report a suspected ethical issue, how would you do so? For instance, to whom would you report? Would you discuss the matter with anyone first?
  • Does the fact that you have only been recently hired play into your decisions?
  • Lastly, please assume that you suspect that some state or federal laws have been broken. In other words, the problems might be beyond just a possible ethical issue. Would this change your handling of the situation?

After reading through the You Decide activity and considering the questions listed here, please prepare a paper in APA format. The paper should include responses to the specific questions posed above, but you may include other points if you so desire. The paper should be double spaced, 11-point or 12-point type, and between 500 and 1,000 words.


Typically, the best way to manage such situations is to make the project public so that other contractors are given the chance to present their best prices and services.  This is called competitive bidding, which…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Course Discussions Week 1-7 All Students Posts – 448 Pages

Week 1 All Students Posts – 61 Pages

Federalism – 31 Pages

What is federalism? How does it compare to a unitary system? How does it compare to a confederation? It’s important that people understand how government works and how it affects their lives.  Class, why is it important that people understand how government works? What’s the role of Government?

Federalism is a system of government where power is divided between a national government and the state governments.  This model has a strong central government, but also strong local governments as well. Specific powers reside in the central government, specific powers reside in the local governments, and specific powers are shared between the two.

The unitary model structures power in such a way that all decision making rests in the hands of the central government. This means that decisions flow from the central or national government to the local provinces or local entities. There is uniformity in the decisions and they apply equally across the country.

At the other end of the spectrum lies the confederate system. The system under the Article of Confederation was an example of a confederate government as was the Confederacy. Power rests in the local entities, like states, and the central or national government can only do what the confederate association allows it to.

In theory, Federalism would provide uniformity when necessary, strength of the unitary system, but allow for diversity and local rule when needed, the strength of a confederate system. The key to making such a system to work would be in knowing what powers or decisions need to be centralized to make sure the nation works smoothly, and what powers or decisions need to be left in the hand of local or regional entities so that the specific needs of the people are met. This is not an easy task. In fact the nature of federalism is in constant refinement, and many cases that come to Supreme Court involve how powers of the states and national government should operate…

State/Federal Conflict – 30 Pages

Have you noted any recent conflicts between a state (i.e., the state where you live) and the federal government? Even if a current dispute does not come to mind, do you feel that issues such as economic problems and health reform can lead to conflicts? How does the federal government influence state government? Why is it important that people understand how government works?

“The U.S. Department of Justice concluded that a process former Secretary of State Karen Handel used to check the citizenship of voter applicants violated the federal Voting Rights Act. Her successor Brian Kemp hasn’t said how he views the issue, but some Georgia legislators supported Handel’s position….”

I concur that economic problems and health reforms can instigate dilemmas between the states government and the federal government. First, the perspective of a limited national government in the influencing of a state government will definitely create conflicts, because of tighter constraints from the national government on imposing the state government of mitigating its own economic and health reforms problems. Moreover, if the state cannot deliver its  political ends, then the national government will tend to decrease its aid (federal funds) to that particular state, which the state will have no choice but to have to sacrifice its own political public policies and political agenda.

With an unlimited national government influence over the states and local governments, then states will perceive that the government will never want to relinquish its power over them. State and local government will feel that their authority and rule cannot be manifested as an intergovernmental norm, but a national government that imposes its political beliefs on the state and local governments’ statutes…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 2 All Students Posts – 75 Pages

Theories of Federalism – 31 Pages

What is meant by dual federalism? When did this view of the relationship between the federal and state governments first develop? Is this theory still prevalent today? What is dual federalism? What are some other advantages of dual federalism?

Dual federalism is the constitutional doctrine first associated with the Taney Court. it essentially holds that the states and the federal government are co-equal in the federal system, and that the structure of government is a kind of layer cake. It portrays the states as powerful components of the federal government
Dual federalism remained the prevalent constitutional doctrine until the New Deal Era.

Dual federalism is composed of four essential parts:

1. The national government rules by enumerated powers only. The national government may rule only by using powers specifically listed in the Constitution.
2. The national government has a limited set of constitutional purposes. The national government has only limited purposes.
3. Each government unit — nation and state — is sovereign within its sphere. National and state governments are sovereign in their own spheres.
4. The relationship between nation and states is best characterized by tension rather than cooperation. The relationships between the state and national governments are marked by tension…

Federal Departments and Agencies – 44 Pages

How and why are executive departments created? Which ones were created in the early years of our nation?  How are local and state government agency’s influenced by federal laws? what are some other disadvantages to federalism as it relates to state laws? What are some methods public officials can do to build more trust among constituents?

Executive departments are created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs and also the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws.  Executive departments, like the Department of Defense or the Department of Justice, must be created by statute. Today there are 14 executive departments. the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all having been established within a few weeks of each other in 1789. On the other hand, agencies in the executive branch may be created by a variety of means: statute, internal departmental reorganizations, or, in some cases, presidential directive. In his constitutional capacity as chief executive or commander in chief, or by delegation of authority by Congress, the president can create various agencies or units by executive order. All agencies, however, must ultimately be given a statutory authority if they are to receive appropriations or their decisions are to have legal force…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 3 All Students Posts – 55 Pages

Why Do We Have So Many Governments? – Posts 32 Pages

In your opinion, why do we have so many different governments in the United States of America? For example, have you ever noticed how many governments exist where you live? If so, please pick one and explain why, in your view, it exists. Class, in your opinion what is the role of the Federal Government? What are some other disadvantages to federalism as it relates to state laws? How does consumer behavior influence government spending?

According to the lecture, I think that we have so many different governments in the United States of America because we have history of each one of the 50 states within the United States. And since we have about 50 states within the United States, I believe that different governments are needed for the states.

The only government I have noticed that exist where I live is “local Governments” which has many types of local governments which are:

1) Counties: Is a subdivision of the state with limited home rule powers.

2) Municipalities: It can be called by various names, such as hamlet, village, town, or city.

3) special districts: Special-purpose governments to benefits residents within a district.

The local government exists where I live because in many states, counties may be divided into townships. For example, in New York State, the city of New York has five boroughs or local governments that co-exist with the three counties that comprise a city…

Compare/Contrast Dillon’s Rule and Home Rule – 33 Pages

How did Dillon’s rule come about? Is it still in effect today in some states? How is home rule an alternative, and is it available in all states? Class, list some other ways government influences businesses? In your opinion, how do Government Departments influence society? What’s the importance of local Government?

Both the Dillon’s and home rules drive towards achieving the same purpose; the purpose being that powers and authority must be administered in accordance to the law, in reference to accountability and self-jurisdiction as well as interventions in cases in which the lower authority by hierarchy is not able to handle a matter or issue on its own and needs input and support from the higher authority. It’s basically like in businesses in which top level management can assist or intervene where necessary at the local level in issues with mid or lower level management or employees in the interest of the company. In addition, there are hierarchies in place to ensure order, easy management, and distribution of resources…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 4 All Students Posts – 62 Pages

Government Revenues – 32 Pages

Taxes are a primary source of government revenue. What types of tax do you notice in your daily life? For example, is there a state income tax in your state? What about sales taxes? What’s the difference between tax avoidance?  What are some legitimate ways that consumers can reduce their taxes? What’s the difference between tax avoidance? What are some legitimate ways that consumers can reduce their taxes?

According to the lecture, some types of the payroll taxes are imposed on both employees and employers, the prevalence of the taxes on individuals is arguably dramatic. Once the federal government has used a particular type of tax to some degree which the states can be limited to some extent which is imposing that same type of tax. The federal government imposes an income tax on individuals and on corporations, and majority of the state impose one or the other or both of these types of taxes. Also when any given state imposes too high of an income tax, relative to other states, then there could be migration of individuals and companies from state to state to seek a more favorable tax environment…

Federal Funding – 30 Pages

The federal government provides funding to state and local governments in various ways. Let’s start with some basics to see how this may be done. To start, what is a grant? How does a grant differ from a loan? Why are federal grants important? What are some challenges these organizations may face as a result of being only grant funded?

Grants are a form of financial or other similar assistance that is given freely without any requirement of repayment. Grants are usually in the form of money, but some types of grants may offer access to resources, services, goods or other aid. Since the grant recipient is not required to repay the assistance, a grant is basically a free gift unlike a loan. Additionally, recipients are not required to pay taxes on their gifts.
Grants are used to carry out an authorized purpose, and are not provided as personal benefits. Grants are often offered by government agencies, corporations, non-profit organizations, foundations, educational institutions and trusts. Loans are money you borrow that you must pay back, usually with interest rates…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 5 All Students Posts – 61 Pages

Public Policy – 31 Pages

What is meant by the term public policy? Is there such a thing as good or bad public policy? Why is it important that consumers understand the importance of public policy? How does public policy influence voting? In your opinion how has consumer behavior influence government spending?

Public policy is a system of laws regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives. (Kilpatrick, 2014)

Yes, I think public policy could be bad. Public policy is shared through education and interest groups. Sometimes groups and education can promote a negative course of action. For example, some activist stands up for cause in bad ways that may lead to violence or the destroying of property…

Strategic Planning – 30 Pages

What are some of the difficulties in strategic planning? Are some of those challenges unique in the context of a governmental agency? What are some other benefits of strategic planning? Why is group participation very important when it comes to strategic planning?  In your opinion, why is long term goal setting important?

Strategic planning is the process of defining the mission and vision of an entity and then setting forth the direction to achieve the goals and objectives.

These are some of the challenges that they face when making a strategic plan:

What is the task that needs to be completed?
Where is the funding for this task coming from?
Who are the people needed to completed the task?
When is the timeline for the task to be completed?…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 6 All Students Posts – 65 Pages

Ethics Laws and Rules – 32 Pages

In your opinion, can ethics be legislated? For instance, can we have laws that cover all possible scenarios? Class, do you feel elected officials should be held to the same standards as everyone? How do individuals in Leadership positions who practice good ethics influence public opinion? How does public opinion influence change? Why is it important that people in today’s society hold government agencies accountable?

Ethics could mean several things to different people or organizations. The existence of a code of conduct or handbook manual for employees is a clear and vivid guideline for ethical conducts; however, professional organizations produce their respective codes of conduct with recognition and authority to do so given by law or legislation. For example, a state legislation may require professions to produce code of conducts in order to administer their profession and ensure that employees live up to the standard of respect as high as possible. For example, legislation may or not require judges to have served for 20 years as lawyers, belong to their state bar, or not associate to any party…

Code of Ethics – 33 Pages

What is a code of ethics? What is the role of a code of ethics in public administration? Who do you think should establish a code: an agency, the overall government, or an outside organization? Class, do you feel zero tolerance policies is a great way to reduce unethical behavior? What are some other methods companies can use to reduce unethical behavior? Do you feel a person’s personal ethics may determine their level of accountability?

A code of ethics is a set of guidelines that an organization follows in order to have good values and ethics in the workplace. The role of code of ethics in public administration is very important. We rely on our governments (local, state, and federal) to provide us with the right information and the guidance we need to progress as a community and country. If there are unethical things that are occurring in the government then we as people will lose trust in the government. The recent issues with the secret service has showed that when certain behaviors are displayed then this can affect the people who run these departments and the country itself…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Week 7 All Students Posts – 69 Pages

Performance Evaluations – 35 Pages

What methods are available for evaluating the performance of an agency? Class, what do employee evaluations measure and why are they important? What are some other methods that can used to evaluate employees? Why is it important that people in today’s society hold government agencies accountable?

Performance evaluations are important to any organization because this gives consumers a view of how the company is doing compared to their competitors. For example, a method for evaluating a city or governmental office would be evaluation surveys given to patrons on the service provided or what needs to be more available to them as they visit these cities…

Accountability and Ethics – 34 Pages

In your opinion, how is accountability intertwined with ethics? Why do you feel this way? Class, where do you think a person gets their ethics from? What are some other methods you feel that can used to reduce unethical behavior from public officials? What are some other methods you feel that can used to reduce unethical behavior from public officials? In your opinion, how does personal ethics influence accountability?

Accountability is intertwined with ethics because being responsible for your actions goes with your values and morals. Being ethical means making the right decision on account of what you believe is right or wrong. For example, when managers cover up a scandal they are being unethical and not being accountable for what has took place…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

Final Exam

(TCO A) Explain briefly why a governmental agency may have many different stakeholders. (Points : 15)

The reason why a governmental agency may have different stakeholders is due to the different businesses projects and their beliefs.  Some local citizens…

(TCO A) Explain briefly how the election cycle can lead to challenges for strategic planning for a governmental agency. (Points : 15)

The election cycle is composed of at least three parts, namely, pre-electoral period, electoral period, and post-electoral period. During the first…

(TCO B) Explain the basics of the theory of dual federalism and the importance of the Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland to that theory. (Points : 15)

Dual federalism is a political theory where two governments share sovereign power over a particular group of people or over a certain…

(TCO B) Explain the basics of new federalism. Please also mention at least two presidents who have used that phrase for their programs. (Points : 15)

Back in the 18th century, the power and authority of the central government were focused more on the issues of national level only, including performing tasks that citizens could…

(TCO C) The 50 states within the United States of America have come about in a variety of ways. Please briefly explain at least two of the ways that states have been formed and/or admitted to the union. (Points : 15)

The two ways that that we have discussed in our lectures and other readings, I have found that the Constitution had provisions for two types of government…

(TCO C) “Home rule” may be available to some local governments. What is meant by this term “home rule?” (Points : 15)

Home rule pertains to the right of a city, locality, or county within a state to self-regulate, create laws, and pass laws that the locality thinks would benefit…

(TCO D) The ability to generate specific types of taxes varies from one level of government to the next. Rank the abilities of the three: local, state, and federal government. Explain at least one way that the respective abilities of the three levels of government to raise tax impact them from an intergovernmental perspective. (Points : 15)

There are specific types of taxes that vary from one level of government to the next.  The fiscal relationship among the three government bodies, the federal government has the…

(TCO E) Why was the Department of Homeland Security formed? Do you feel that this has helped from a strategic planning perspective? (Points : 15)

The Department of Homeland Security was formed in 2002 after Federal…

(TCO F) Explain briefly why requiring financial disclosure of certain governmental officials may help prevent ethical issues from arising. (Points : 15)

The reason why it is important to require financial disclosures of certain governmental officials is because it prevents illegal activities due to thief.  State Ethics Commission refers to a…

(TCO F) Why is having a code of ethics a good idea for a governmental entity? (Points : 15)

Code of ethics pertains to rules and regulations, including principles and guidelines, which organizations enforce onto its employees regardless of…

(TCO G) The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (the “GASB”) has conceptually addressed the idea of performance reporting. The concept sets forth the idea of measuring “service efforts and accomplishments” (“SEA” for short). Service accomplishments can be viewed as the output measures or as outcome measures. Explain briefly the difference between output measures and outcome measures. (Points : 15)

The measures of service efforts and accomplishments are more important to government and non-profit organizations than for-profit businesses because…

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course

(TCO G) The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (the “GASB”) has conceptually addressed the idea of performance reporting. The concept sets forth the idea of measuring “service efforts and accomplishments” (“SEA” for short). Define and explain the term “service efforts.” (Points : 15)

Service efforts pertain to services offered by the government and its corresponding effects on the public. Traditionally, these are reported…

(TCO A) Suppose that you have just been hired as a midlevel manager in your state’s highway department and placed in charge of strategic planning for the department. As you are starting to think about the strategic plan that the department will be developing, you are already considering the implementation phase. In broad general terms, list and briefly discuss three implementation steps. (Points : 25)

Strategic planning is a good method that helps organizations plan, strategic, recognize sources of opportunities, and identify possible risks the organization might face, it may…

(TCO B) Three distinct structures of national government are unitary, confederate, and federal. Compare and contrast a unitary government with a federal government with a focus on at least two weaknesses of each of these two forms of national government. (Points : 25)

According to our lecture and resources, the difference between unitary government and federal government is that the unitary system holds much of the….

(TCO C) Special districts are an important component of the governmental structure in the United States. Please address the creation, existence, and use of such districts. Some aspects that you should consider are as follows. What is a special district? Why might one be formed? Please feel free to use a brief example of a type of service and/or district that might be formed as part of your answer. (Points : 25)

A special district are division of local government that are established by residents of the area who provide services not provided by the county or city.  An example used in our lecture notes are…

(TCO D) Three models of the relationships between the national, state, and local governments are: Coordinate-Authority, Inclusive-Authority, and Overlapping-Authority. Describe the Coordinate-Authority model and the Inclusive-Authority model, including a discussion of the respective views on the levels of dependence between the layers. (Points : 25)

According to our lecture notes, Coordinate-authority is the independent relationship between the state and local government.  Local units are dependent on the state…

(TCO E) Oftentimes, all three levels of government may be involved in responding to a natural disaster. One key idea in this area is that the immediate needs must generally be by the local governments’ first responders. Explain why this is the case. Further explain the role of the federal government in these matters.(Points : 25)

The reason why local government officials are the first responders is because police and fire department personnel are responsible for local operations.  The Department of Homeland Security…

(TCO F) Ethical issues can easily arise in governmental affairs and may be faced by anyone working as a public administrator. List and discuss three ethical issues that may be faced by an elected official or an administrative employee within a government or agency. (Points : 25)

The three ethical issues that an elected official might face are Letting of Contracts, Orders within the Bureaucracy, and Personal Business or Investment Interests.  I feel that…

(TCO G) In 1993, the Congress of the United States passed the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA). In 2010, the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 made substantial changes to that existing law. First, explain at least a couple of the reasons that an update was needed. Second, describe at least two changes that the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 made to that existing law. (Points : 25)

Some of the changes that were discussed in our lecture notes is that the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 made was that leadership was required in the public sector….

PA584 Intergovernmental Management Course