PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

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PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation 
The Policy Research Paper is a course-long project that allows you the opportunity to examine…

Description

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation 

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

A+ Entire Course: Paper Week 3, 6 |Course Project Week 6| Midterm Exam| Discussions Week 1-7| Final Exam

Approaches to Public Administration Paper Week 3 

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Requirements:

Approaches to Public Administration Paper

This assignment is worth 100 points. Your report is to be prepared as a Word document and transmitted to the instructor as a Dropbox attachment. The entire document is to be 600 to 1,000 words in length.

To earn full points, you must address each of these items:

  • Description of the approaches to public administration: managerial, political, and legal (30 points)
  • Identify the approach that you identify with the most (15 points).
  • Explanation of why you selected this approach (20 points)
  • Identify the approach that you identify with or understand the least (15 points)

Preview:

In the political approach, political authority is divided between a central government and the provincial or state governments.  This means that some provinces or states are accorded a substantial measure of constitutional or legal sovereignty, although they still remain….

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

Course Project U.S. Immigration Policy Week 6 

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Requirements

The Policy Research Paper is a course-long project that allows you the opportunity to examine a current national societal issue that you feel could be properly alleviated, or perhaps even resolved, via public policy making.

This paper is valued at 200 points. This paper will be graded on the quality of the research topic, the quality of the information properly cited within the paper, the analysis and recommendations, grammar, and sentence structure.

As you consider topics, remember that this policy paper should contain a comprehensive assessment of the problem, the proposed policy, and the potential consequences of implementation of that policy. When you write your paper, you should think of yourself as a staff person who must advise a policy maker facing a problem that must be resolved in the near future. As this staff person, adopt one of the perspectives of public administration as discussed in class, and frame your responses around this approach.

The Policy Research Paper should be 8 to 12 pages, double-spaced, size 12 point font. The paper should include a cover page, table of contents, introduction, body of the report, summary or conclusion, and works cited (reference page). The page count is of the content and, thus does not include the cover, table of contents, or reference page(s).

Even though this is not a scientific-type writing assignment, and is mostly creative in nature, references are still very important. At least six authoritative, outside references are required (anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable). These should be listed on the last page titled “References.”

The paper should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines.

Appropriate citations are required.

All DeVry University policies are in effect, including the plagiarism policy.

Papers are due during Week 6 of this course.

Any questions about this paper may be discussed in the weekly Q & A Discussion topic.

The paper should include the following components:…

Preview:

For a nation of immigrants, as what late President John F. Kennedy called the United States of America (U.S.A.) in his book, immigration policy has constantly been a controversial issue throughout its history.  More recently, the issue of immigration reform has been put into limelight when the border patrols were overwhelmed by ….

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

Midterm Exam 

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(TCO A) Of the following, which is not a central value of the managerial approach? (Points : 5)

Accountability

Economy

Effectiveness
Providing for political representation in public administration

(TCO A) As values, representation and transparency:

Are equally relevant to the public and private transparency

Have differing relevance to the public and private sectors

Do not bear on the practice of public administration

None of the above

(TCO A) Public administration is similar to private management in that (Points : 5)

It provides services

It is profit seeking

It regulates the public at large

None of the above

(TCO A) Under the political approach to public administration, individuals are considered as: (Points : 5)

Members of groups

Ill-informed

Interchangeable with one another

All of the above

(TCO A) In the United States, politics are salient to public administration because: (Points : 5)

Most public employees are hired on a partisan basis

All administrative functions are highly political

Public administrators are involved in the public policy cycle

All of the above

(TCO C) During the 20th century, the government in the United States grew and expanded immensely. This trend has continued into this century. This growth and expansion is known as: (Points : 5)

The third-party government

The Civil Service Reform

The market-based solution

The rise of the administrative state

(TCO C) Congressional oversight is: (Points : 5)

A check on public administrative activity

The failure to pay attention to policy details

Making sure that agencies follow presidential directives

Assuring that federal agencies will have as much funding as they require

(TCO C) In 1946, the Administrative Procedure Act was passed to (Points : 5)

Give agencies greater access to judicial review

Regulate agency rule-making, adjudication, enforcement, and transparency

Force agencies to establish advisory committees

None of the above 

(TCO I) Organized interests can influence administrative policy making through (Points : 5)

Advisory committees

Lobbying

Negotiated rule making

All of the above

(TCO I) The popularity of interest groups is based largely on the assumption that (Points : 5)

Public administration represents the national will

Public administration promotes the national interest

Public administration is involved in policy making

None of the above

(TCO E) Which of the following are generally considered to be uncontrollable government expenditures? (Points : 5)

Entitlements

Interest on debt

Spending required under contractual obligations

All of the above

(TCO E) In 1993, the Congress of the United States passed the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA). This act most closely seeks to (Points : 5)

Enhance accountability by strengthening the offices of the Inspector General (IG) in each federal agency

Require various federal government programs to establish five-year strategic plans that include performance goals

Encourage the EOP to establish performance goals for various federal agencies

Give individual government employees financial incentives to expose waste and fraud in the federal government

(TCO E) Property taxes tend to be (Points : 5)

Progressive

Regressive

Proportional

Neutral

(TCO E) Which of the following constitutes the largest source of federal revenues (Points : 5)

Individual income taxes

Corporate income taxes

Government borrowing

Excise taxes

(TCO I) Discuss how you as a citizen can try to have an impact on policy making by public administrators within a department or agency at a national level.(Points : 20)

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As a citizen, I could impact policy making by informing the city council or school board about…

(TCO C) Define the term “interest group” (or “special interest group”), and explain how an individual may try to influence public policy via such a group. (Points : 20)

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Interest groups are organizations that represent the social and economic interests of certain groups of the population, such as the…

(TCO C) Define the term stakeholder for purposes of a discussion of public policy. Also explain how any given person may be a stakeholder in more than one way on a public policy issue involving governmental finances. (Points : 20)

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A stakeholder is any person, organization, group, or entity that might be affected by a decision. In terms of…

(TCO A) Healthcare access and affordability is an issue that has become more prevalent in our society and has been the subject of much debate and legislation. Suppose for the sake of this question that the Congress of the United States government has at long last passed legislation providing for universal healthcare coverage, and the president has signed it into law. In other words, each and every citizen and resident of the United States is now entitled to healthcare services without regard as to the ability to pay.
Focusing only on the managerial approach to public administration, please address how the government departments or agencies will be structured to implement this new policy. You may wish to address the values under that approach, the possible organizational structure, the view of the individual, and budgeting issues. (Points : 40)

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The managerial approach is similar to the business approach where the differences between public and private management are diminished. With this approach, the government is…

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(TCO E) If you are a policy maker at a local level seeking funding for a new program or service, you will be facing issues that are different from policy makers at the national level. Please explain three or more of those issues and challenges. (Points : 40)

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As a policy maker at a local level seeking funding for a new program, they may faces issues regarding basic information on cost and charges, the impact of pricing reform, comparative…

Midterm Exam Study Guide

Answers prepared based on study guide

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TCO A – What are the approaches to public administration?

Political approach

Legal approach

What are the values under the various approaches to public administration, including the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach?

What are the possible organizational structures under the various approaches to public administration, including the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach?

What is the view of the individual under the various approaches to public administration, including the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach?

What are the basics of decision making under the various approaches to public administration, including the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach?

What are the budgeting issues that may exist under the various approaches to public administration, including the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach?

What are the similarities and differences between public management and private management?

Why are some policy making done by public administrators rather than elected officials?

Why can’t the government be run like a business?

Given the U.S. economic and political system, trace the history of public administration as a discipline, ending with an identification of what are considered to be elements of both the “new” public administration and public choice schools of thought

TCO C – What is the role of an “interest group” (also called a “special interest group”) with respect to the making of public policy?

How and why is public policy made by departments and/or agencies?

What is the concept of a “stakeholder” with respect to a public policy?

What is the reason for the rise of the “administrative state”?

What are the basics of the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946, including the reason for its passage, the goals under that law, and the idea of Congressional oversight?

Given a particular public policy objective, identify and fully explain the steps involved in the policy process, and delineate the respective roles of all relevant stakeholders

TCO E – Why does a public administrator need to understand financial and budgeting issues such as sources of funding and the federal budget process?

What are the sources of taxes at the various levels of governments?

What are the major categories of expenditures at the various levels of governments?

What is the concept of uncontrollable government expenditures and what are some examples?

What are the basics of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)?

What are the types of budgeting methods, including the rationale for each respective method?

Given program requirements, establish a budget that would be required in order to achieve the policy objectives, and suggest an approach for achieving the necessary funding.

What are the means by which a citizen may have an impact on policy making at a national level?

What are the means by which a citizen may have an impact on policy making at a state level?

What are the means by which a citizen may have an impact on policy making at a local level?

What are the ways that an “interest group” (also called a “special interest group”) may influence the making of public policy, including at a department or agency level

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

Discussions Week 1-7

All Students Posts 401 Pages  

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Viewpoints & Approaches to Public Administration Discussions Week 1 All Students Posts 57 Pages 

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Viewpoints – 28 Pages

Let’s begin the discussion by you answering the question, what does the term public administration mean to you? How have you been involved with public administration? What are the differences between the private sector and the public sector? What does public policy mean to you? What is the difference between policy and administration?  What values are important to public policy that impact public administration?  What values are important to public policy that impact public administration? What is the citizen’s role in the public policy process at the three levels of government?…

Approaches to Public Administration – 29 Pages 

The three approaches are a method to understand or categorize public administration.  We may find ourselves tending to favor one approach over another because of our own philosophical thoughts and interests.  When you think about the three approaches, is there one better than the other?  Choose one of the approaches and explain the basics. Class, according to the authors of the course text, the New Public Management approach has become the dominant managerial approach in the U.S.

When you consider the main features of this approach do you agree that it is the dominant approach? What is your evidence that government, especially local government, is getting worse?  Can you elaborate?  Also, I am not sure how you mean to link the employer’s desire or lack of desire for experienced workers with NPM? What are some current “trends” transforming our government and public administration today? Choose one of the trends transforming government, and address how that may impact the approach to Public

Administration….

Policy Process & Citizens’ Input Discussions Week 2 All Students Posts 58 Pages 

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Policy Process – 29 Pages

What is meant by the term “policy process”?  Who might be viewed as stakeholders on a federal policy issue?  To what extent do you feel that the stakeholders should have a say in the process of setting policy? Why have public administrators gained authority, independence and influence in policy making?  Is this a good thing? Class: As we continue to establish why public administrators have authority and influence, let’s shift the discussion a bit.  What has our political and legal system done to try to curb this trend?…

Citizens’ Input – 29 Pages 

Have you ever attended a meeting of a local government (I have attended hundreds, maybe thousands) or served on an advisory board? Could you please share your experiences? If not, could you please check the website of a local government in your area, and relate to us the procedures for attending and/or speaking? How do these local government procedures compare to procedures for public input at the State or Federal level? How do the local government procedures for public input compare to procedures for

public input at the State or Federal level? If forming or membership in an interest group increases influence in the public policy making process, how is this helpful?  Is it always helpful?…

Comparing Budgets & Revenue Sources Discussions Week 3 All Students Posts 70 Pages 

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Comparing Budgets – 32 Pages

Public services cost money.  Public administrators have a huge role in developing a government’s annual spending plan which depends upon a vast array of funding sources – mostly taxes.  This week we will be discussing governmental budgeting. When I prepare my annual city budget, I need to have a balanced budget.  In other words, cities and states cannot have a deficit.  On the other hand, the Federal government can spend more than it raises in revenues if it deems necessary.  What are the advantages of this authority? What is generally the largest expenditure of state and local governments combined?…

Are some expenditures by government generally uncontrollable?  What are some examples?

Revenue Sources – 38 Pages 

Study and share a recent budget of your local government. Compare sources of revenue among classmates. What sources are the same? Which ones are different? What are the major sources of revenue for the school operations? Many governments use performance measurements or performance indicators to help create and guide the budget process.  What is performance budgeting and how is it an improvement over other budgeting?…

Goals of Public Policy & Decision Making Discussions Week 4 All Students Posts 59 Pages 

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Goals of Public Policy – 31 Pages

Let’s start with the Federal government.  Congress continues to debate an overhaul of immigrations laws.  Among other provisions, major controversies within the proposed legislation are the path to citizenship for existing illegal immigrants and border security.  In your view, what are the policy goals of the proposed bill – Efficiency? Equity? Stabilization? Or, what about “Obamacare”, one of the most divisive policies in recent history.  The law is beginning to be implemented now. In your view, what were the public policy goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 – Efficiency? Equity? Stabilization? If a public policy is establish to create equity, what will it do?  What will the result be? If a public policy is establish to create economic stability, what will it do?  What will the result be? If a public policy is establish to create efficiency in the broad context, what will it do?  What will the result be?…

Decision Making – 28 Pages 

Three models of decision making were addressed in this week’s readings. Let’s address each of the three starting with the rational-comprehensive model. Please describe that model. Which approach to public administration does it seem best suited to? Do you like and use this model? Class:  Sometimes my city staff gets frustrated with Council decisions that are not based on the NPM variant, but rely on the political approach.  Some would suggest that being politically astute is a necessary attribute of a city administrator.

Can a public administrator successfully facilitate a politically motivated discussion? How? Please read the article.  What do you think of Benest’s (2013) advice?  How does this apply to the work of all public administrators?…

Implementation & Evaluation Discussions Week 5 All Students Posts 55 Pages 

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Implementation – 30 Pages

What is meant by implementation? Assume in this regard that a new policy has been passed by the legislature in your state that is in your field of work, study or interest. In general terms, what are some of the steps for implementation? Some policies objectives are agreeable to most everyone, but the methods may not be agreeable to everyone.

Can you think of a policy that is attaining its objectives, but through an implementation to which you are opposed? For example, consider the use of roadblocks to combat DUIs. Or, red light cameras to deter red light violations.

Of course the objective of the roadblocks is to decrease the number of people driving under the influence, but do you suppose that stopping every single person at a roadblock is constitutional? What about being cited for a running a red light after a photograph of your car? How do you think we can reconcile the idea of protecting everyone while still maintaining some sense of rights?…

Evaluation – 25 Pages

A public administrator is apt to make sure the policy is meeting performance objectives?  Is that how everyone will evaluate it?  What are some of the problems in trying to evaluate the effectiveness of policy outputs and policy implementation? How can you as a public administrator bring the public into the process of evaluating a policy?

How can you facilitate public input?  Hold a hearing?  Send out a survey?  Other ways? The policy makers understand the benefits of new single family homes.  They know there was a cost to the program and why.  But, what they don’t know is if the discount in fees caused  anyone to build in St. Cloud that otherwise would not have.  The fundamental question here is – did the incentive cause more homes to be built in St. Cloud?  How can we demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive?..

Sunset Provision & Citizen Involvement Discussions Week 6 All Students Posts 50 Pages 

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Sunset Provision – 23 Pages 

What does the term “sunset provision” mean?  Why are these used?  How does a sunset provision reduce the cost of a new program? What is the current status of the Patriot Act?  Have the provisions scheduled to sunset been reviewed? How does a sunset provision reduce the cost of a new program? Using the Patriot Act as an example, address the trade-off between security and privacy. Why might that have led to inclusion of a sunset provision? Do you think that the sunset provision helped get the act passed?

Describe how a state legislature might make a sunset provision applicable to allagencies within that state. Why might such a general provision be created by the state? What would be the goal, in other words, of having a sunset for all agencies? How might this assist citizens in having a say in the government? Does this sound like a good thing to you?…

Citizen Involvement – 27 Pages 

Public-Private Partnership & The Future Discussions Week 7 All Students Posts 52 Pages 

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Public-Private Partnership – 27 Pages 

Let’s start by developing an understanding of public-private partnerships.  In general, what is meant by the term public-private partnership? Do you have an example from your own community? From a financial perspective, what is one advantage that might be present for a public-private partnership as compared to a project undertaken just by a public agency? Why should a government seek the best value in entering a public-private partnership rather than just the lowest cost?

In your opinion, why can there be a difference between best value and lowest cost? Does this seem counter to the usual competitive bidding used by governments in many instances? Some of you probably drive on roads that are the product of a PPP.  From your perspective as a user, do you think this PPP is effective?  Is the road maintained well?  Is the cost reasonable?  Is it easy to pay your tolls?…

The Future Week 7 – 25 Pages 

Let’s talk about significant issues for policy makers and public administrators today.

From your studies this session, and especially from your work on the Course Project, what do you feel is a major public policy issue facing the United States in the coming years? In many of these issues there are multiple opinions from multiple stakeholders.  In many cases, each of us try to protect “our” interests.  How can we reconcile these differences?

Class: There are parts of our system that help us to ‘cope’ and continue to provide valuable public services, aren’t there?  What are some skills we need as public administrators, combined with the system, to continue to provide valuable services?…

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

Final Exam 

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(TCO A) Government in general, and public administration in particular, have changed fairly drastically over the past few decades. Explain some of the factors and trends that are transforming these areas. (Points : 30)

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 Within the last decade, new rules and regulations were executed.  Many of these rules and regulations are still in place, but most of them have had additional policies applied to it or some of…

(TCO B) Efficiency should be one of the goals of an effective public policy. Under the traditional managerial approach to public administration, that goal is consistent with the rational-comprehensive model of decision making. Please define, or otherwise explain, the rational-comprehensive model of decision making and detail how a governmental entity might be organized to effectively use that model. (Points : 30)

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The rational-comprehensive approach to decision-making is used by the traditional management approach, which is dependent on bureaucratic organization for…

(TCO B) Equity should be one of the goals of an effective public policy. Explain how the adjudication model of decision making in public administration may help to achieve this goal. Also, mention at least one issue that may exist with the use of the adjudication model. (Points : 30)

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The adjudication model of decision making achieves equity in that it ensures that both parties are heard and that both parties are allowed to provide evidence to…

(TCO C) Legislatures, whether the Congress of the United States or at a state level, often pass legislation that is vague. Hence, the policy mandates given to public administrators via the legislation are vague. Explain first why our elected representatives might create vague statutes and resulting policy directives. Then explain how this may shift policy making to public administrators. (Points : 30)

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When elected representatives create vague statues which result in policy directives it is because of Congress.  Congress will grant then a great…

(TCO C) Statutes enacted by legislatures, whether the Congress of the United States or at a state level, often are vague. Hence, the policy mandates given to public administrators via the legislation are vague. This also shifts much of the policy making to public administrators. Explain the advantages to the public of the public administrators, rather than the elected representatives, making policy via rules and regulations. (Points : 30)

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From what our text says this gives the administrator a lot of latitude in how he or she does her job in a response to the vague laws passed by the legislature. In the…

(TCO D) A first step in measuring the effectiveness of a public policy or program initiative is to understand the differences between “policy outputs” and “policy outcomes.” Please define each of these two terms. Then also explain briefly why it can be difficult to measure a cause and effect between policy outputs and policy outcomes of any given public policy or program initiative. (Points : 30)

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Policy outputs refer to the actions that are actually performed by the government whereas policy outcomes…

(TCO D) Measuring the effectiveness of a public policy or program initiative can be difficult because usually a pure experimental design cannot be used on account of logistical problems and ethical concerns. In some circumstances, a quasi-experimental design of research can be used to determine if a correlation between a policy change and the results have a cause and effect relationship. Please explain the basics of a quasi-experimental design, and explain how that framework can be used at a state level to try to measure the effectiveness of the public policy. (Points : 30)

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There are three different designs of researches and they are pure experimental design of research, nonexperimental design of research and…

(TCO E) Compare and contrast the ability of the federal government to borrow money with that of state and local governments. Explain how the borrowing capabilities, or lack thereof, may impact your work as a public administrator seeking funding to achieve policy objectives. (Points : 30)

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Federal government-Subject to a debt limit, the ability of the federal government to borrow money is fairly…

(TCO E) Define the term “public-private partnership.” Explain at least two of the challenges facing the public sector and how this structure may help to alleviate those challenges. (Points : 30)

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A public-private partnership is a business relationship between a government agency and a private-sector company. It is formed for the…

(TCO E) A public administrator working for a federal agency and overseeing the funding of the public policy implementation for its programs should be cognizant of the federal budget process. Please provide an overview of that process. Assume that you are the program director. Explain how your understanding of the process will assist you in that role. (Points : 30)

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In order to budget and public finance, there are three levels of government budgeting.  These include the federal, state, and local government levels.  According to the…

(TCO G) With driving while impaired being a problem in your state, a new law was enacted requiring stricter enforcement of the existing statutes. As a public administrator in charge of the implementation, describe the steps that you feel should be taken so that the policy can be placed in effect in a cost-effective manner. (Points : 30)

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To implement the policy in a cost-effective manner, the policy must first be passed down from the state to the appropriate government agency. In this case…

(TCO I) Between election cycles, a citizen may become disgruntled with the actions (or lack of actions) of his or her representatives. Some states allow a person to use an “initiative” process to try to force a change. These initiatives can also be called by other names, such as ballot measure, proposal, or proposition. No matter the name, please describe the general process for an initiative to occur. Also, describe at least two possible requested outcomes of an initiative at the state level. (Points : 30)

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The general process for an initiative involves the drafting of a legislative bill or constitutional amendment by the…

(TCO F) Olympus School District is in a geographic area that is experiencing rapid population growth. As a result, the district needs three additional schools as soon as reasonably possible. The district is allowed to impose property taxes and has a strong tax base. However, provisions on existing bonds payable restrict its ability to issue more bonds to pay for the construction of the new schools. A consultant from the state education department has suggested to the board of the district to consider entering into a “public-private partnership.” Please define this term: public-private partnership. What advantage should occur from entering into such an arrangement? Propose a scenario for the construction of the schools using such an arrangement. (Points : 30)

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Public-private partnerships would be an appropriate way to achieve policy objectives if recognized public figures support the initiative as they can help minimize the public’s misconceptions about the…

(TCO G) Your state has recently passed a law requiring each resident of the state to be covered by at least a minimum amount of health insurance. As a public administrator in charge of the implementation, describe the steps that you feel should be taken so that the policy can be placed in effect in a cost-effective manner. (Points : 30)

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When implementing a new public policy, an implementation plan should be created to ensure that the impact of the new policies and procedures will be…

(TCO H) Once an agency is established to implement a new public policy, that entity may continue to exist year-after-year without evaluation as to its continuing relevance. Some might say that this is a problem. A “sunset provision” when an agency is created may help to overcome this potential issue. Please define or otherwise explain the term “sunset provision” in the context of the creation of an agency. Also, explain how such a provision may help the public. (Points : 30)

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Implementing sunset provisions would be one way of providing a meaningful way by which a new policy can be evaluated.  This will enable the…

(TCO H) A problem with government, some might say, is that once an agency is established to implement a new public policy, that entity may continue to exist year-after-year without evaluation as to its continuing relevance. A “sunset provision” when an agency is created may help to overcome this potential issue. Please define or otherwise explain the term “sunset provision” in the context of the creation of an agency. Also, explain how such a provision may help the public. (Points : 30)

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Sunset provisions, as noted earlier, are another manifestation of the desire to hold public administrators accountable. From the managerial…

(TCO I) Democracy can be either direct or indirect. Please define both direct democracy and indirect democracy. Generally, which do we have in the United States? Explain briefly what role initiatives, referendums, and recalls might play in this distinction between direct democracy and indirect democracy. (Points : 30)

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In a direct democracy, the people are able to directly make decisions through the proposal of laws or of referendums on laws that are…

(TCO I) Farmersville, the small city where you have lived for the past decade, has a fairgrounds with a short track used for stock car racing. An annual fair is held there, weekly races are run during the summer months, and occasionally the property is rented out for special events. The fairgrounds property is owned by the city, and thus, decisions regarding its use and continuation are controlled by the board of aldermen. Recently, that governing board has voted to discontinue the activities there and to seek a buyer for the property for redevelopment. Explain how you might try to influence the decision-makers into reversing this plan. (Points : 30)

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Attend board meetings to keep current on the plan…

Final Exam Study Guide

Answers prepared based on study guide

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TCO B – Given public administration as a discipline, explicate the role that efficiency, equity, and stabilization objectives play in the development of public policy at all levels of government.

Economic aspects of public policy

What are the limitations of these sources of revenue?

Models of decision-making – rational-comprehensive, incrementalism, and adjudication

Political approach

Legal approach

Two Categories of Adjudication

TCO D – Experimental design of research

Nonexperimental design of research

Quasi-experimental design of research

Given a particular public policy or program initiative, specify the major elements of a policy analysis that will establish the efficacy of that policy or program in consideration of objectives, resources, and alternatives.

What is the difference between policy outputs and policy outcomes?

TCO E – Federal Budget Process

What are the stages of the budgetary process?

What is the relationship among deficit, surpluses, and national debt?

TCO F – Given limitations on the availability of public sector resources, establish the conditions under which public-private partnerships would be an appropriate way to achieve policy objectives. Given limitations on the availability of public sector resources, establish the conditions under which public-private partnerships would be an appropriate way to achieve policy objectives.

TCO G – Implementation steps for a new public policy.

Determining who should implement a new public policy

Marginal costs of implementation

Given a public policy, prescribe an approach whereby it would be implemented in a cost-effective way.

TCO H – Given a public policy, prescribe an approach whereby it would be evaluated in a meaningful way, and specify the uses to which evaluation results would be put.

TCO I – What is the difference between direct democracy and indirect democracy?

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation

Keller