SCI 228 Midterm Exam

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SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 1) The ________ are a diverse group of organic substances including triglycerides, phospholipids…

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SCI 228 Midterm Exam

SCI 228 Midterm Exam

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(TCO 1) Which of the following is an example of an organic micronutrient?
Folate
Calcium
Fat
Iron
(TCO 1) The ________ are a diverse group of organic substances including triglycerides, phospholipids, and the sterols.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Vitamins
Proteins
(TCO 1) An increased risk for obesity, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes is associated with:
Diets high in saturated fats
Diets low in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Diets high in monounsaturated fats and dairy products
Both diets high in saturated fats and diets low in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
(TCO 1) Which of the following nutrients contains the element nitrogen?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Water
Proteins
(TCO 1) Which of the following nutrients is the most energy dense?
Carbohydrates
Lipid
Protein
Vitamin
(TCO 1) Which of the following is NOTa primary function of dietary protein?
Building new cells and tissues
Repairing damaged structures
Regulating metabolism and fluid balance
Serving as a primary source of energy for the body
(TCO 1) What element makes protein different from carbohydrates and fat?
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
(TCO 1) The building blocks of proteins are called:
Fatty acids
Amino acids
Saccharides
Nitrogen fragments
(TCO 1) Vitamin C and the B vitamins are termed:
Nonessential vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Trace vitamins
(TCO 1) Which statement is FALSE concerning the field of nutrition?
Nutrition is the study of how food nourishes the body
Nutrition encompasses how we consume, digest, metabolize, and store food
Nutrition is an ancient science that dates back to the 14th century
Nutrition involves studying the factors that influence eating patterns
(TCO 1) Which of the following is NOT an essential nutrient?
Water
Alcohol
Vitamins
Minerals
(TCO 1) The ________ are a diverse group of organic substances including triglycerides, phospholipids, and the sterols.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Vitamins
Proteins
(TCO 1) Which of the following is true regarding the science of nutrition?
As compared to many other scientific disciplines, nutrition is a young science.
Discoveries by the first nutritional scientists established the connection between deficiencies and illness.
In developed countries, current research in nutrition focuses on the relationship between diet and chronic diseases.
All of these are true.
(TCO 1) Which of the following nutrients is organic?
Minerals
Water
Protein
Both minerals and water
(TCO 1) Which of the following is an example of disease that is directly caused by a nutritional deficiency?
Anemia
Cancer
Osteoporosis
Heart disease
(TCO 1) Which of the following BEST describes minerals?
Micronutrients that are broken down easily during digestion
Micronutrients that are easily destroyed by heat and light
Inorganic micronutrients found in a variety of foods
Nutrients that are needed in large amounts by the body
(TCO 2) Which federal agency conducts the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)?
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
ADA (American Dietetic Association)
NIH (National Institutes of Health)
(TCO 2) The second step of the scientific method is:
Observation and description of a phenomenon
Testing a research question or hypothesis
Generating a hypothesis
Collecting data
(TCO 2) The Dietary Guidelines to Americans has defined physically active as a:
Minimum of 60 minutes of moderate activity most days
Minimum of 30 minutes of moderate activity most days
Minimum of 15 minutes of intense activity most days
Total of 8 hours of moderate activity per week
(TCO 2) Which of the following is exempt from standard food labeling regulations?
Coffee
Spices
Meat
All of these
(TCO 2) Which of the following snacks will have the highest satiety value, assuming the calories and relative size are similar?
Slice of whole-grain bread
Piece of cheese
Glass of whole milk
Glass of skim milk
(TCO 2) ________ are inorganic nutrients that are not broken down by the human body or destroyed by heat.
Vitamins
Minerals
Proteins
Fats
(TCO 2) The ________ is most responsible for prompting individuals to seek food.
Stomach
Small intestine
Hypothalamus
Mouth
(TCO 2) ________ are strongly accepted principles supported by many hypotheses that have been collectively confirmed through repeated research.
Studies
Theories
Placebos
Trials
(TCO 2) Suzie is a stay-at-home mom who generally prepares the majority of meals for her household. Even though she always prepares meals that offer enough calories and nutrients for her family of four, she tends to make the same meals again and again. Which one of the characteristics of a healthy diet is Suzie not incorporating into her meal planning?
Adequacy
Balance
Moderation
Variety
(TCO 2) The term “sin tax” refers to:
Related health consequences of consuming 100 extra kilocalories each day.
A small, sales tax placed on unhealthful items (cigarettes, alcohol) to generate revenue for health programs.
Revenues generated from the sales of junk food items in public school vending machines.
Costs of the recent obesity lawsuits targeting fast food manufactures.
(TCO 2) Overweight status can be evaluated by calculating an individual’s body mass index (BMI) and/or by measuring:
Blood pressure.
Waist circumference.
Caloric intake.
Eating attitudes index.
(TCO 2) The percent daily values (%DV) on food labels are based on the:
DRIs
RDIs
DRVs
All of these
(TCO 2) Which of the following describes the vitamins A, D, E, and K?
Excreted via the urine
Soluble in water
Daily consumption is necessary
Can be stored in adipose and liver tissue
(TCO 2) Which of the following is NOT a regulator of satiety in the body?
GI tract
Hypothalamus
Hormones
Kidney
(TCO 2) Jack is a college athlete who requires 2,800 kilocalories a day to support his total energy needs. Even though Jack likes many different foods and makes it a point to try new things, he only consumes approximately 1,600 kilocalories a day. Which one of the characteristics of a healthy diet is Jack missing?
Adequacy
Balance
Moderation
Variety
(TCO 2) Which group of nutrients would be found in the foods at the base of the Food Guide Pyramid?
Vitamin C and vitamin B12
Calcium and iron
Fiber and complex carbohydrates
Protein and fat
(TCO 2) The information provided on a food label that identifies intake of nutrients based on 2,000 calories a day is called the:
Nutrition Facts Panel
Percent Daily Value
Daily Reference Value
Reference Daily Intake
(TCO 2) Which of the following is required on all food labels?
The net contents of the package
Ingredient list
The name and address of the vendor
All of these
(TCO 3) Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ of digestion?
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Large intestine
(TCO 3) Bicarbonate is released into the duodenum during the process of digestion. Why?
To neutralize the acidic chime
To activate hormonal release of bile
To digest fats/oils
To lubricate the villi of the small intestine
(TCO 3) Barbara has just been diagnosed with celiac disease. Which of the following foods would be most dangerous for her to consume?
Cornflakes
Rice cakes
Potatoes
Whole-wheat bread
(TCO 3) A primary function of the mucus in the stomach is to:
Neutralize stomach acid
Activate pepsinogen to form pepsin
Protect stomach cells from autodigestion
Emulsify fats
(TCO 3) The acidity of the stomach allows for all of the following EXCEPT:
Preparing dietary carbohydrates for absorption in the small intestine.
Protecting the human body from bacteria in food.
Denaturing protein to allow its breakdown and absorption.
Activating pepsin.
(TCO 3) Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries most of the fat-soluble nutrients?
Vascular
Mesenteric
Lymphatic
Enterohepatic
(TCO 3) What is the name of the sphincter that separates the stomach from the small intestine?
Pyloric
Gastroesophageal
Ileocecal
Rectal
(TCO 3) Collectively, the nerves of the gastrointestinal tract are referred to as:
peptic nerves
hepatic nerves
enteric nerves
gastric nerves
(TCO 3) If a person is suffering from GERD, the ________ is malfunctioning.
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Epiglottis
Gastroesophageal sphincter
(TCO 3) In which of the following food sources would a consumer look for the statement “Live Active Cultures,” indicating that the product is a rich source of probiotics?
Whole-wheat bread
Fermented yogurt
Orange juice
Calcium supplements
(TCO 3) Which best explains why carbohydrates digestion ceases when food reaches the stomach?
Carbohydrates is completely digested in the mouth.
Salivary enzymes cannot function in the acid environment of the stomach.
Carbohydrates is completely absorbed in the esophagus.
Intestinal bacteria are needed for carbohydrates digestion.
(TCO 3) What is the primary cause of peptic ulcers?
Stress
H. pylori bacteria
Prolonged use of aspirin
Eating too many spicy foods
(TCO 3) In which of the following food sources would a consumer look for the statement “Live Active Cultures,” indicating that the product is a rich source of probiotics?
Whole-wheat bread
Fermented yogurt
Orange juice
Calcium supplements
(TCO 4) After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body’s cells?
Estrogen
CCK
Glucagon
Insulin
(TCO 4) Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?
Saccharin
Sucralose
Aspartame
Acesulfame-K
(TCO 4) Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?
An individual’s glucose/insulin ratio in a fasted state
The amount of insulin required to metabolize 100 grams of glucose
The glucose content of a given food
The extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin
(TCO 4) The term complex carbohydrates refers to:
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Glucose
(TCO 4) A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of:
Two monosaccharides
Two polysaccharides
One monosaccharide and one polysaccharide
Two oligosaccharides
(TCO 4) ________ is a highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules found in liver and skeletal muscle cells.
Fructose
Starch
Glycogen
Raffinose
(TCO 4) Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?
Starch
Disaccharides
Dietary fiber
Simple sugars
(TCO 4) Which of the following is a disaccharide?
Sucrose
Fructose
Galactose
Glucose
(TCO 4) A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of:
Two monosaccharides
Two polysaccharides
One monosaccharide and one polysaccharide
Two oligosaccharides
(TCO 3) The acidity of the stomach allows for all of the following EXCEPT:
Preparing dietary carbohydrates for absorption in the small intestine.
Protecting the human body from bacteria in food.
Denaturing protein to allow its breakdown and absorption.
Activating pepsin.
(TCO 4) Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?
A diet that contains too much fat
A diet that contains insufficient fat
A diet that contains too much carbohydrates
A diet that contains insufficient carbohydrates
(TCO 4) Major fructose sources include:
Milk and cheese
Nuts and honey
Fruits and vegetables
Breads and cereals
(TCO 4) A diet low in fiber is associated with an increased risk of developing:
Kidney stones
Dental caries
Diabetes
Diverticulosis
(TCO 3) Which of the following organs is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of many digestive enzymes and bicarbonate?
Liver
Stomach
Pancreas
Gallbladder
(TCO 4) In type 1 diabetes, the ________ may be destroyed by an autoimmune disease.
Hepatocytes of the liver
Beta cells of the pancreas
Neurotransmitters of the brain
Glomerulus cells of the kidney
(TCO 4) After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body’s cells?
Glucagon
Estrogen
CCK
Insulin
(TCO 4) Lactose intolerance is due to a(n):
Deficiency of lactose
Deficiency of lactase
Deficiency of the GI flora (healthy bacteria)
Allergy to casein (milk protein)
(TCO 4) Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?
Saccharin
Sucralose
Aspartame
Acesulfame-K
(TCO 1-6) Which government agency regulates organic farming standards in the United States?
Food and Drug Administration
United States Department of Agriculture
Environmental Protection Agency
Centers for Disease Control
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following additives gives ham, hot dogs, and bologna their pink color?
Sulfites
BHT/BHA
Nitrates/nitrites
Propionic acid
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following food preservation methods limits spoilage by drawing water out of foods, making them inhospitable to bacterial growth?
Sugaring
Salting
Smoking
All of these
(TCO 1-6) The easiest and most effective way to prevent food-borne illnesses is to:
wash hands before handling food
separate foods to avoid cross-contamination
chill foods to prevent microbes from growing
cook foods to their proper temperature
(TCO 1-6) The primary symptom of Giardia infection is:
Jaundice
Diarrhea
Dementia
Anemia

SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 1-6) ________ is added to table salt in the United States in order to reduce the risk of developing a goiter.
Iron
Sodium
Iodine
Magnesium
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following temperature ranges provides optimal growth for the majority of food-borne microbes?
20-40F
40-60F
60-80F
80-100F
(TCO 1-6) In which of the following environments does Clostridium botulinum flourish?
Acidic
Alkaline
F
> 140F
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following is NOT a recommended method for preventing cross-contamination?
Washing utensils and cutting boards in the dishwasher
Using a porous wood cutting board
Washing dishtowels and aprons often
Separating raw and cooked foods
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following is responsible for food spoilage?
Oxygen
Heat
Light
All of these are responsible for food spoilage
(TCO 1-6) The main symptom associated with Clostridium botulinum intoxication is:
Diarrhea
Paralysis
Anemia
Jaundice
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following is an example of a persistent organic pollutant?
Mercury
GMO
Sulfite
Coal tar
(TCO 1-6) Which human organ system is most affected by toxic levels of mercury?
Nervous
Renal
Cardiovascular
Digestive
(TCO 1-6) The two types of fungi are:
Molds and spongiforms
Yeasts and helminthes
Prions and dioxins
Molds and yeasts
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following are the most common form of pesticides?
Insecticides
Herbicides
Fungicides
Biopesticides
(TCO 1-6) A cyclic food allergy is one that:
Occurs every time the offending food is eaten
Develops on a fixed time frame, such as once a month
Develops slowly over time
Occurs during times of physiological stress, such as during illness or surgery

SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 1-6) Hepatitis A is a food-borne virus that can result in ________ damage.
Nerve
Intestinal
Liver
Muscle
(TCO 1-6) Which of the following foods is most likely to contain sulfites?
Peas (canned)
Yogurt
Grapes (fresh)
Ground beef
(TCO 5) Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?
Fatty acids
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Sterols
(TCO 5) All of the following are major classes of dietary lipids EXCEPT:
Glycogens
Triglycerides
Sterols
Phospholipids
(TCO 5) Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?
Hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids
Hydrogenation is the process in which hydrogen atoms are added to double bonds.
Hydrogenation creates a heart-healthy product.
Hydrogenation makes a product more solid at room temperature.
(TCO 5) Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the presence of trans-fatty acids in a product?
Hydrogenated vegetable oil
Lecithin
Liquid corn oil
Vitamin E
(TCO 5) ________ is(are) the key structural component of a cell’s membrane.
Estrogen
Glycerol
Phospholipids
Triglycerides
(TCO 5) The production of endogenous VLDL is decreased by:
Exercise
Simple sugars
Extra calories
Dietary cholesterol
(TCO 5) Which of the following foods contains invisible fats?
Olive oil
Zucchini
Chocolate cake
Butter
(TCO 5) Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?
Allergies
Gastrointestinal distress
Elevated blood cholesterol levels
Hypertension
(TCO 5) Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
Short-chain
Saturated
Monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated

SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 5) Diets high in trans-fatty acids are associated with:
Decreased cancer risk
Increased blood cholesterol levels
Osteoporosis
Decreased blood glucose levels
(TCO 5) One potential problem with a very low-fat diet is that it may be deficient in:
Phosphorus
Cholesterol
Trans fatty acids
Essential fatty acids
(TCO 5) Which of the following foods is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids?
Broccoli
Sirloin steak
Tofu
Salmon
(TCO 5) Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of dietary cholesterol?
Steamed broccoli
Olive oil
Skim milk
Butter
(TCO 5) Which of the following is NOT true of fats?
Dietary fats stimulate hunger signals to the brain
Fats add texture and flavor to food
Fats are found in every cell membrane
Adipose tissue stores fat for future energy use
(TCO 5) Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
Short-chain
Saturated
Monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated
(TCO 5) Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?
Hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids.
Hydrogenation is the process in which hydrogen atoms are added to double bonds.
Hydrogenation creates a heart-healthy product.
Hydrogenation makes a product more solid at room temperature.
(TCO 6) Which of the following health problems has been associated with high protein intakes?
Elevated blood cholesterol
Marasmus
Edema
Sickle cell anemia

SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 6) The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called:
The protein combining method
Amino acid sequencing method
Mutual supplementation
Protein
(TCO 6) Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?
Enzymes
Antibodies
Buffers
Transport proteins
(TCO 6) Which of the following is used to measure protein quality?
The amount of essential amino acids present
The digestibility of the protein
The protein efficiency ratio
All of these
(TCO 6) Which of the following is a genetic disorder resulting in debilitating protein abnormalities?
Cystic fibrosis
Mad cow disease
Acidosis
Kwashiorkor
(TCO 6) Which of the following is NOT a major function of protein in the human body?
Maintaining fluid balance
Providing energy to the body
Growth and maintenance of new tissue
Synthesis of hormones
(TCO 6) A complete protein:
Contains all 20 amino acids
Contains all nine essential amino acids
Has not been denatured
Is composed of only di- and tri-peptides
(TCO 6) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The healthy body’s primary energy source is carbohydrates and fat.
The body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves.
To utilize protein for energy, the amine group is removed.
Eating sufficient carbohydrates and fat will spare body protein.

SCI 228 Midterm Exam
(TCO 6) Which of the following supplements would you recommend a vegan add to his or her diet?
Protein
Fiber
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
(TCO 6) A complete protein:
Contains all 20 amino acids.
Contains all nine essential amino acids.
Has not been denatured.
Is composed of only di- and tri-peptides.
(TCO 6) Brenda is a reasonably healthy 19-year-old college student who is sedentary. She is 5’8″ tall and weighs 145 pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend she consume each day?
45 grams
53 grams
65 grams
73 grams
(TCO 6) Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of ________.
Carcinogens
Antioxidants
Prions
Vitamins B12 and D
(TCO 6) The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called:
Translation
Deamination
Denaturation
Transcription
(TCO 6) Which of the following is associated with marasmus?
Distended abdomen
“Skin and bones” appearance
Enlarged, fatty liver
All of these
(TCO 6) Proteases are:
Protein messengers that are released from storage in response to an alteration in the body’s homeostasis.
Transport proteins that move substances throughout the body.
Defense proteins that attack foreign bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
Enzymes that break down protein.
(TCO 6) Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of:
Glucose
Electrolytes
Buffers
Nitrogen

SCI 228 Midterm Exam

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